Annual Plant Reviews, Phosphorus Metabolism in Plants

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The development of phosphorus (P)-efficient crop varieties is urgently needed to reduce agriculture's current over-reliance on expensive, environmentally destructive, non-renewable and inefficient P-containing fertilizers. The sustainable management of P in agriculture necessitates an exploitation of P-adaptive traits that will enhance the P-acquisition and P-use efficiency of crop plants. Action in this area is crucial to ensure sufficient food production for the world s ever-expanding population, and the overall economic success of agriculture in the 21st century. This informative and up-to-date volume presents pivotal research directions that will facilitate the development of effective strategies for bioengineering P-efficient crop species. The 14 chapters reflect the expertise of an international team of leading authorities in the field, who review information from current literature, develop novel hypotheses, and outline key areas for future research. By evaluating aspects of vascular plant and green algal P uptake and metabolism, this book provides insights as to how plants sense, acquire, recycle, scavenge and use P, particularly under the naturally occurring condition of soluble inorganic phosphate deficiency that characterises the vast majority of unfertilised soils, worldwide. The reader is provided with a full appreciation of the diverse information concerning plant P-starvation responses, as well as the crucial role that plant microbe interactions play in plant P acquisition. Annual Plant Reviews, Volume 48: Phosphorus Metabolism in Plants is an important resource for plant geneticists, biochemists and physiologists, as well as horticultural and environmental research workers, advanced students of plant science and university lecturers in related disciplines. It is an essential addition to the shelves of university and research institute libraries and agricultural and ecological institutions teaching and researching plant science.


About the Editors

William Plaxton is currently a Full Professor and Queen's Research Chair in the Department of Biology at Queen's University, Kingston, Canada. Hans Lambers is Professor of Plant Physiological Ecology in the School of Plant Biology at the University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia.


List of Contributors xvii

Preface xxiii

Section I Introduction

1 Phosphorus: Back to the Roots 3
Hans Lambers and William C. Plaxton

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Phosphorus or phosphorous? 4

1.3 Phosphorus on a geological time scale 6

1.4 Phosphorus as an essential, but frequently limiting, soil nutrient for plant productivity 7

1.5 Soil phosphorus pools 9

1.6 Soil phosphorus mobility 10

1.7 Factors determining rates of phosphorus uptake by roots 11

1.8 Phosphorus-starvation responses: does phosphorus homeostasis exist? 13

1.9 Concluding remarks 14

Acknowledgements 15

References 15

Section II P-Sensing, Transport, and Metabolism

2 Sensing, Signalling, and Control of Phosphate Starvation in Plants: Molecular Players and Applications 25
Wolf-Rüdiger Scheible and Monica Rojas-Triana

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 The plant phosphate-starvation response 26

2.3 Sensing of phosphate and other macronutrient limitations in plants 29

2.3.1 Nutrient transporters as sensors/receptors 29

2.3.2 Local Pi sensing and signalling at the root tip by PDR2/LPR1 31

2.3.3 Phosphite, a tool to investigate P-sensing/signalling 31

2.4 Signalling of phosphate limitation 32

2.4.1 The role of phytohormones 33

2.4.2 Systemic signalling during P-starvation 37

2.4.3 Transcriptional regulators involved in P-signalling and affecting P-starvation responses 39

2.4.4 The role of microRNAs and targeted protein degradation in P-signalling 41

2.4.5 Additional regulators of P-signalling 43

2.5 Improving plant P-acquisition and -utilization efficiency: approaches and targets 44

2.6 Concluding remarks 48

References 49

3 'Omics' Approaches Towards Understanding Plant Phosphorus Acquisition and Use 65
Ping Lan, Wenfeng Li and Wolfgang Schmidt

3.1 Introduction 66

3.2 Towards a transcriptomics-derived 'phosphatome' 67

3.3 Pi deficiency-induced alterations in the proteome 77

3.4 Core PSR proteins 80

3.5 Membrane lipid remodelling: insights from the transcriptome, the proteome, and the lipidome 83

3.6 Genome-wide histone modifications in Pi-deficient plants 86

3.7 Conclusions and outlook 89

3.8 Acknowledgements 90

References 90

4 The Role of Post-Translational Enzyme Modifications in the Metabolic Adaptations of Phosphorus-Deprived Plants 99
William C. Plaxton and Michael W. Shane

4.1 Introduction 100

4.2 In the beginning there was protein phosphorylation 101

4.3 Monoubiquitination has emerged as a crucial PTM that interacts with phosphorylation to control the function of diverse proteins 104

4.4 Post-translational modification of plant phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase by phosphorylation versus
monoubiquitination 107

4.4.1 Activation of PEP carboxylase by in-vivo phosphorylation appears to be a universal aspect of
the plant P-starvation response 107

4.4.2 PEP carboxylase monoubiquitination: an old dog learns new tricks 109

4.4.3 Reciprocal control of PEP carboxylase by in-vivo monoubiquitination and phosphorylation in
developing proteoid roots of P-deficient harsh hakea 111

4.5 Glycosylation is a sweet PTM of glycoproteins 114

4.5.1 A pair of AtPAP26 glycoforms is upregulated and secreted by P-deprived Arabidopsis 115

4.5.2 The AtPAP26-S2 glycoform copurifies with, and appears to interact with, a curculin-like lectin 116

4.6 Concluding remarks 117

Acknowledgements 118

References 119

5 Phosphate Transporters 125
Yves Poirier and Ji-Yul Jung

5.1 Introduction 125

5.2 The PHT1 transporters 126

5.2.1 PHT1 structure, activity, and expression patterns 126

5.3 Control of PHT1 activity 130

5.3.1 Control of PHT1 tra...

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