Enzymatic Fuel Cells

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Summarizes research encompassing all of the aspects required tounderstand, fabricate and integrate enzymatic fuel cells * Contributions span the fields of bio-electrochemistry andbiological fuel cell research * Teaches the reader to optimize fuel cell performance to achievelong-term operation and realize commercial applicability * Introduces the reader to the scientific aspects ofbioelectrochemistry including electrical wiring of enzymes andcharge transfer in enzyme fuel cell electrodes * Covers unique engineering problems of enzyme fuel cells such asdesign and optimization


HEATHER R. LUCKARIFT is the Senior Research Scientist for Universal Technology Corporation at the Air Force Civil Engineer Center (formerly the Microbiology & Applied Biochemistry team at the Air Force Research Laboratory). She is the author of over fifty peer-reviewed publications and invited reviews.

PLAMEN ATANASSOV is a Professor of Chemical & Nuclear Engineering and the founding director of The University of New Mexico Center for Emerging Energy Technologies. He was the principal investigator on an Air Force Office of Scientific Research Multi-University Research Initiative program: Fundamentals and Bioengineering of Enzymatic Fuel Cells. He is the author of more than 220 publications, including twelve reviews.

GLENN R. JOHNSON is the Chief Scientist and founder of Hexpoint Technologies and the former principal investigator of the Microbiology & Applied Biochemistry team within the Air Force Research Laboratory. He is the author of over fifty peer-reviewed publications and invited reviews.


A thorough and illuminating look at enzymatic fuel cells and their place in our current and future world

With their use in biomedical applications and for portable electronics, enzymatic fuel cells offer an alternative power source to meet our world's increasing energy demands.

Outlining the fundamentals, design, optimization, integration, and future trends of enzymatic fuel cells, Enzymatic Fuel Cells: From Fundamentals to Applications presents a comprehensive overview of enzymatic fuel cell researchwith a special emphasis on methodology, fabrication, integration, and testing of enzymatic fuel cells.

The book provides introductory reading with a concise scheme of illustrations and:

  • Covers fundamentals of enzymatic fuel cells as well as their design, optimization, and integration
  • Introduces the reader to the scientific aspects of bioelectrochemistry and the unique engineering problems of enzymatic fuel cells
  • Offers an outlook on the practical applications of enzymatic fuel cells such as powering of microdevices, biomedical applications, and in autonomous systems
  • Details future developments and emerging applications of enzymatic fuel cells

Enzymatic Fuel Cells is an ideal book for readers in the areas of electrochemistry, biochemistry, materials science, biosensors, biotechnology, environmental and chemical engineering, wastewater, and biology.


Preface xv

Contributors xvii

1 Introduction 1
Heather R. Luckarift, Plamen Atanassov, and Glenn R. Johnson

List of Abbreviations, 3

2 Electrochemical Evaluation of Enzymatic Fuel Cells and Figures of Merit 4
Shelley D. Minteer, Heather R. Luckarift, and Plamen Atanassov

2.1 Introduction, 4

2.2 Electrochemical Characterization, 5

2.2.1 Open-Circuit Measurements, 5

2.2.2 Cyclic Voltammetry, 5

2.2.3 Electron Transfer, 6

2.2.4 Polarization Curves, 6

2.2.5 Power Curves, 8

2.2.6 Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, 8

2.2.7 Multienzyme Cascades, 8

2.2.8 Rotating Disk Electrode Voltammetry, 9

2.3 Outlook, 9

Acknowledgment, 10

List of Abbreviations, 10

References, 10

3 Direct Bioelectrocatalysis: Oxygen Reduction for Biological Fuel Cells 12
Dmitri M. Ivnitski, Plamen Atanassov, and Heather R. Luckarift

3.1 Introduction, 12

3.2 Mechanistic Studies of Intramolecular Electron Transfer, 13

3.2.1 Determining the Redox Potential of MCO, 13

3.2.2 Effect ofpHand Inhibitors on the Electrochemistry ofMCO, 17

3.3 Achieving DET of MCO by Rational Design, 18

3.3.1 Surface Analysis of Enzyme-Modified Electrodes, 20

3.3.2 Design of MCO-Modified Biocathodes Based on Direct Bioelectrocatalysis, 21

3.3.3 Design of MCO-Modified Air-Breathing Biocathodes, 22

3.4 Outlook, 25

Acknowledgments, 26

List of Abbreviations, 26

References, 27

4 Anodic Catalysts for Oxidation of Carbon-Containing Fuels 33
Rosalba A. Rincón, Carolin Lau, Plamen Atanassov, and Heather R. Luckarift

4.1 Introduction, 33

4.2 Oxidases, 34

4.2.1 Electron Transfer Mechanisms of Glucose Oxidase, 34

4.3 Dehydrogenases, 35

4.3.1 The NADH Reoxidation Issue, 35

4.3.2 Mediators for Electrochemical Oxidation of NADH, 37

4.3.3 Electropolymerization of Azines, 38

4.3.4 Alcohol Dehydrogenase as a Model System, 41

4.4 PQQ-Dependent Enzymes, 42

4.5 Outlook, 44

Acknowledgment, 45

List of Abbreviations, 45

References, 45

5 Anodic Bioelectrocatalysis: From Metabolic Pathways to Metabolons 53
Shuai Xu, Lindsey N. Pelster, Michelle Rasmussen, and Shelley D. Minteer

5.1 Introduction, 53

5.2 Biological Fuels, 53

5.3 Promiscuous Enzymes Versus Multienzyme Cascades Versus Metabolons, 55

5.3.1 Promiscuous Enzymes, 55

5.3.2 Multienzyme Cascades, 56

5.3.3 Metabolons, 56

5.4 Direct and Mediated Electron Transfer, 57

5.5 Fuels, 58

5.5.1 Hydrogen, 58

5.5.2 Ethanol, 58

5.5.3 Methanol, 60

5.5.4 Methane, 61

5.5.5 Glucose, 61

5.5.6 Sucrose, 65

5.5.7 Trehalose, 65

5.5.8 Fructose, 67

5.5.9 Lactose, 68

5.5.10 Lactate, 68

5.5.11 Pyruvate, 69

5.5.12 Glycerol, 70

5.5.13 Fatty Acids, 70

5.6 Outlook, 72

Acknowledgment, 72

List of Abbreviations, 73

References, 73

6 Bioelectrocatalysis of Hydrogen Oxidation/Reduction by Hydrogenases 80
Anne K. Jones, Arnab Dutta, Patrick Kwan, Chelsea L. McIntosh, Souvik Roy, and Sijie Yang

6.1 Introduction, 80

6.2 Hydrogenases, 81

6.3 Biological Fuel Cells Using Hydrogenases: Electrocatalysis, 85

6.4 Electrocatalysis by Functional Mimics of Hydrogenases, 92

6.4.1 [FeFe]-Hydrogenase Models, 92

6.4.2 [NiFe]-Hydrogenase Models, 95

6.4.3 Incorporation of Outer Coordination Sphere Features, 97

6.5 Outlook, 97


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Enzymatic Fuel Cells
From Fundamentals to Applications
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Wärme-, Energie- und Kraftwerktechnik
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