High Enthalpy Gas Dynamics

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Beschreibung

This is an introductory level textbook which explains the elements of high temperature and high-speed gas dynamics. * written in a clear and easy to follow style, the author covers all the latest developments in the field including basic thermodynamic principles, compressible flow regimes and waves propagation in one volume * covers theoretical modeling of High Enthalpy Flows, with particular focus on problems in internal and external gas-dynamic flows, of interest in the fields of rockets propulsion and hypersonic aerodynamics * High enthalpy gas dynamics is a compulsory course for aerospace engineering students and this book is a result of over 25 years' teaching by the author * accompanying website includes a Solutions Manual for exercises listed at the end of each chapter, plus lecture slides



Autorentext
Ethirajan Rathakrishnan, Indian Institute of Technology, India

Inhalt

About the Author xiii

Preface xv

1 Basic Facts 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.1.1 Enthalpy 1

1.2 Enthalpy versus Internal Energy 3

1.2.1 Enthalpy and Heat 4

1.3 Gas Dynamics of Perfect Gases 5

1.4 Compressible Flow 6

1.5 Compressibility 7

1.5.1 Limiting Conditions for Compressibility 8

1.6 Supersonic Flow 11

1.7 Speed of Sound 11

1.8 Temperature Rise 15

1.9 Mach Angle 17

1.9.1 Small Disturbance 19

1.9.2 Finite Disturbance 19

1.10 Summary 19

Exercise Problems 25

References 25

2 Thermodynamics of Fluid Flow 27

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 First Law of Thermodynamics 28

2.2.1 Energy Equation for an Open System 29

2.2.2 Adiabatic Flow Process 31

2.3 The Second Law of Thermodynamics (Entropy Equation) 32

2.4 Thermal and Calorical Properties 33

2.4.1 Thermally Perfect Gas 34

2.5 The Perfect Gas 35

2.5.1 Entropy Calculation 36

2.5.2 Isentropic Relations 39

2.5.3 Limitations on Air as a Perfect Gas 46

2.6 Summary 59

Exercise Problems 62

References 64

3 Wave Propagation 65

3.1 Introduction 65

3.2 Velocity of Sound 66

3.3 Subsonic and Supersonic Flows 66

3.4 Similarity Parameters 70

3.5 Continuum Hypothesis 71

3.6 Compressible Flow Regimes 73

3.7 Summary 75

Exercise Problems 76

References 77

4 High-Temperature Flows 79

4.1 Introduction 79

4.2 Importance of High-Enthalpy Flows 81

4.3 Nature of High-Enthalpy Flows 83

4.4 Most Probable Macrostate 83

4.5 Counting the Number of Microstates for a given Macrostate 85

4.5.1 BoseEinstein Statistics 86

4.5.2 FermiDirac Statistics 87

4.5.3 The Most Probable Macrostate 87

4.5.4 The Limiting Case: Boltzmann's Distribution 92

4.6 Evaluation of Thermodynamic Properties 94

4.6.1 Internal Energy E 95

4.7 Evaluation of Partition Function in terms of T and V 99

4.8 High-Temperature Thermodynamic Properties of a Single-Species Gas 103

4.9 Equilibrium Properties of High-Temperature Air 108

4.10 Kinetic Theory of Gases 108

4.11 Collision Frequency and Mean Free Path 111

4.11.1 Variation of Z and with p and T of the Gas 114

4.12 Velocity and Speed Distribution Functions 115

4.13 Inviscid High-Temperature Equilibrium Flows 121

4.14 Governing Equations 121

4.15 Normal and Oblique Shocks 123

4.16 Oblique Shock Wave in an Equilibrium Gas 130

4.17 Equilibrium Quasi-One-Dimensional Nozzle Flows 132

4.17.1 Quasi One-Dimensional Flow 134

4.18 Frozen and Equilibrium Flows 139

4.19 Equilibrium and Frozen Specific Heats 141

4.19.1 Equilibrium Speed of Sound 145

4.19.2 Quantitative Relation for the Equilibrium Speed of Sound 146

4.20 Inviscid High-Temperature Nonequilibrium Flows 148

4.20.1 Governing Equations for Inviscid, Nonequilibrium Flows 149

4.21 Nonequilibrium Normal Shock and Oblique Shock Flows 153

4.21.1 Nonequilibrium Flow behind an Oblique Shock Wave 156

4.21.2 Nonequilibrium Quasi-One-Dimensional Nozzle Flows 158

4.22 Nonequilibrium Flow over Blunt-Nosed Bodies 161

4.23 Transport Properties in High-Temperature Gases 163

4.23.1 Momentum Transport 164

4.23.2 Energy Transport 165

4.23.3 Mass Transport 165

4.24 Summary 174

Exercise Problems 191

References 194

5 Hypersonic Flows 195

5.1 Introduction 195

5.2 Newtonian Flow Model 196

5.3 Mach Number Independence Principle 198

5.4 Hypersonic Flow Charact...

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Produktinformationen

Titel
High Enthalpy Gas Dynamics
Autor
EAN
9781118821909
ISBN
978-1-118-82190-9
Format
E-Book (pdf)
Hersteller
Wiley
Herausgeber
Wiley
Genre
Maschinenbau, Fertigungstechnik
Veröffentlichung
16.12.2014
Digitaler Kopierschutz
Adobe-DRM
Dateigrösse
5.33 MB
Anzahl Seiten
352
Jahr
2014
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