The book deals with Ultra-Low-Frequency (ULF)-electromagnetic waves observed on the Earth and in Space. These are so-called geomagnetic variations or pulsations. Alfvn's discovery related to the influence of the strong magnetic field on the conducting fluids (magnetohydrodynamics) led to development of the concept that the ULF-waves are magnetospheric magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)-waves. MHD-waves at their propagation gather information about the magnetosphere, ionosphere, and the ground. There are two applied aspects based on using the ULF electromagnetic oscillations. The first one is the ground-based diagnostics of the magnetosphere. This is an attempt to monitor in the real time the magnetosphere size, distance to the last closed field-lines, distribution of the cold plasma, etc. The second one is the deep electromagnetic sounding of the Earth. The basis for these studies is the capability of any electromagnetic wave to penetrate a conductor to a finite depth. The ULF-waves can reach the depth of a few hundred kilometers. Thus, geophysicists now have a unique tool that can be applied to study the solid Earth as well as its gas-plasma shells - the ionosphere and magnetosphere. This book integrates topics pertaining to all scales of the MHD-waves, emphasizing the linkages between the ULF-waves below the ionosphere on the ground and magnetospheric MHD-waves. It will be most helpful to graduate and post-graduate students, familiar with advanced calculus, who study the science of MHD-waves in the magnetosphere and ionosphere. TOC:From the contents Acknowledgments. Preface. Introduction. 1 Partially Ionized Plasma. 2 Electrodynamic Properties Of Space. 3 Ulf-Waves On The Ground And In Space. 4 Magnetohydrodynamic Waves. 5 Hydromagnetic Resonators. 6 FLR In Plasma Configurations. 7 MHD-Waves In Layered Media. 8 Propagation Of MHD-Beams. 9 Inhomogeneous Ionosphere. 10 Effective Conductivity Of A Cloudy Ionosphere. 11 ULF-Sounding Of Magnetosphere And Earth. 12 MHD-Wave Exposure On The Ionosphere. 13 MHD-Wave Generation By HF-Heating. 14 Active Cloud Releases And MHD-Emission. 15 MHD After-Effects Of A Sound Impact. Experiment. References. Index. List of Notations.
Acknowledgments. Preface. Introduction. 1 PARTIALLY IONIZED PLASMA. 1.1 Introduction. 1.2 Comments on the plasma dynamics. 1.3 Electromagnetic field equations. 1.4 Dielectric permeability and conductivity. 1.5 Dispersion equation. 2 ELECTRODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SPACE. 2.1 The solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere. 2.2 Ionosphere. 2.3 Atmosphere. 2.4 Summary. 3 ULF-WAVES ON THE GROUND AND IN SPACE. 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 The physical pattern. 3.3 ULF-waves on the ground and in space. 4 MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES. 4.1 MHD equations. 4.2 Homogeneous plasma. 4.3 Inhomogeneous plasma. 5 HYDROMAGNETIC RESONATORS. 5.1 Model and basic equations. 5.2 Dungey's problem. 5.3 Explicit eigenmodes. 5.4 Field-Line Resonance (FLR) frequencies. 5.5 FLR-equations. 5.6 FLR-field structure. 5.7 Global and surface oscillation modes. 5.8 Uncoupled Alfvén and FMS-modes. 5.9 Coupling of Alfvén and FMS-waves. 5.10 Summary. 6 FLR IN PLASMA CONFIGURATIONS. 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 2D inhomogeneous plasma. Uniform magnetic field. 6.3 MHD-waves in a curvilinear magnetic field. 6.4 FLR in the dipole geomagnetic field. 6.5 Numerical simulation. 6.6 Summary. 7 MHD-WAVES IN LAYERED MEDIA. 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 Model and basic equations. 7.3 Atmospheric and ground fields. 7.4 `Thin' ionosphere. 7.5 Homogeneous magnetosphere. 7.6 Propagation along a meridian. 7.7 Small-scale perturbations. 7.8 Numerical examples. 7.9 Discussion. 8 PROPAGATION of MHD-BEAMS. 8.1 Introduction. 8.2 Coordinate dependencies. 8.3 Small distances. 8.4 Large distances. 8.5 Summary. 9 INHOMOGENEOUS IONOSPHERE. 9.1 Quasi-stationary approximation. 9.2 Numerical modeling. 9.3 Experimental verification of the MHD-wave polarization. 10 EFFECTIVE CONDUCTIVITY of a CLOUDY IONOSPHERE. 10.1 Introduction. 10.2 Existing theories. 10.3 Inhomogeneous plasma. 10.4 Discussion. 11 ULF-SOUNDING OF MAGNETOSPHERE AND EARTH. 11.1 Introduction.11.2 Inverse problem of FLR. 11.3 Ground-based magnetotelluric sounding. 11.4 The satellite electromagnetic sounding of Earth. 12 MHD-WAVE EXPOSURE ON THE IONOSPHERE. 12.1 The Doppler effect provoked by an MHD-wave. 12.2 TEC modulation by an MHD-wave. 13 MHD-WAVE GENERATION BY HF-HEATING. 13.1 Introduction. 13.2 Ionospheric heating. 13.3 Kinetics of the E-layer in a strong HF-wave. 13.4 Ionospheric conductivity. 14 ACTIVE CLOUD RELEASES AND MHD-EMISSION. 14.1 Introduction. 14.2 MHD-pulse initiation. 15 MHD AFTER-EFFECTS OF A SOUND IMPACT. 15.1 Foundation of the theory. 15.2 Acoustic shock. Experiment. References. Index. List of Notations.