Methods for making inferences from data about one or more probabilities and proportions are a fundamental part of a statistician's toolbox and statistics courses. Unfortunately many of the quick, approximate methods currently taught have recently been found to be inappropriate. This monograph gives an up-to-date review of recent research on the topic and presents both exact methods and helpful approximations. Detailed theory is also presented for the different distributions involved, and can be used in a classroom setting. It will be useful for those teaching statistics at university level and for those involved in statistical consulting.