This book presents a balanced combination of practical and theoretical aspects of geoarchaeology. To do so, it gathers all the components of a natural framework (geology, relief, hydrography, climate, soils, flora and fauna), which have been analyzed from an archaeological perspective. While globally this is a highly developed and researched area, unfortunately in Romania it is still a largely neglected field of study, as limited funds are available. However, the country has a huge potential and international researchers have applied geoarchaeological methods and techniques and published results in numerous journals. This area is important because traces of the Chalcolithic population (Cucuteni culture) have been discovered here. The culture is considered to be the oldest one in Europe, and is highly significant for Romanian as well as European archaeology. The degradation of these settlements is the main core of the work, with illustrative case studies offering insights into the natural and, in some cases, anthropic effects on the sites.