Design, Control and Application of Modular Multilevel Converters for HVDC Tra...

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Design, Control and Application of Modular Multilevel Converters for HVDC Transmission Systems is a comprehensive guide to semiconductor technologies applicable for MMC design, component sizing control, modulation, and application of the MMC technology for HVDC transmission. Separated into three distinct parts, the first offers an overview of MMC technology, including information on converter component sizing, Control and Communication, Protection and Fault Management, and Generic Modelling and Simulation. The second covers the applications of MMC in offshore WPP, including planning, technical and economic requirements and optimization options, fault management, dynamic and transient stability. Finally, the third chapter explores the applications of MMC in HVDC transmission and Multi Terminal configurations, including Supergrids. Key features: * Unique coverage of the offshore application and optimization of MMC-HVDC schemes for the export of offshore wind energy to the mainland. * Comprehensive explanation of MMC application in HVDC and MTDC transmission technology. * Detailed description of MMC components, control and modulation, different modeling approaches, converter dynamics under steady-state and fault contingencies including application and housing of MMC in HVDC schemes for onshore and offshore. * Analysis of DC fault detection and protection technologies, system studies required for the integration of HVDC terminals to offshore wind power plants, and commissioning procedures for onshore and offshore HVDC terminals. * A set of self-explanatory simulation models for HVDC test cases is available to download from the companion website. This book provides essential reading for graduate students and researchers, as well as field engineers and professionals who require an in-depth understanding of MMC technology.


Kamran Sharifabadi, Power Grid & Regulatory Affairs, Statoil, Norway Kamran has twenty-five years of international experience in the field of HVDC technology projects. He started out as a research engineer in ABB and Siemen, worked as a consultant for five years, then became a manager at the Norwegian TSO. He is currently a senior technology advisor for Statoil`s HVDC projects, a guest lecturer in the topics of VSC HVDC, Wind power generation technologies at NTNU and at various different universities in central Europe. Kamran is an active member of the Cigre B4 (HVDC) working group and the leader of the steering committee for a European research project on DC grids.

Remus Teodorescu, Aalborg University, Denmark Remus is an Associate Professor at the Institute of Technology, teaching courses in power electronics and electrical energy system control. He has authored over 80 journal and conference papers and two books. He is the founder and coordinator of the Green Power Laboratory at Aalborg University, and is co-recipient of the Technical Committee Prize Paper Award at IEEE Optim 2002.

Hans Peter Nee, KTH, Sweden Hans is Professor of Power Electronics in the Department of Electrical Engineering. He has supervised and examined ten finalized doctor's projects, and was awarded the Elforsk Scholarship in 1997. He has served on the board of the IEEE Sweden Section for many years and was Chairman during 2002 and 2003. He is also a member of EPE and serves in the Executive Council and in the International Steering Committee.

Lennart Harnefors, ABB, Västerås, Sweden Lennart is currently with ABB Power Systems HVDC, Ludvika, Sweden as an R&D Project Manager and Principal Engineer, and with KTH as an Adjunct Professor of power electronics. Between 2001 and 2005, he was a part-time Visiting Professor of electrical drives with Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden. He is an Associate Editor of the IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, on the Editorial Board of IET Electric Power Applications, and a member of the Executive Council and the International Scienti?c Committee of the European Power Electronics and Drives Association.

Staffan Norrga, KTH, Sweden Between 1994 and 2011, Staffan worked as a Development Engineer at ABB in Västerås, Sweden, in various power-electronics-related areas such as railway traction systems and converters for HVDC power transmission systems. In 2000, he returned to the Department of Electric Machines and Power Electronics of the Royal Institute of Technology, where he is an associate professor. He is the inventor or co-inventor of 11 granted patents and 14 patents pending and has authored more than 35 scientific papers.


Preface xiii

Acknowledgements xv

About the Companion Website xvii

Nomenclature xix

Introduction 1

1 Introduction to Modular Multilevel Converters 7

1.1 Introduction 7

1.2 The Two-Level Voltage Source Converter 9

1.2.1 Topology and Basic Function 9

1.2.2 Steady-State Operation 12

1.3 Benefits of Multilevel Converters 15

1.4 Early Multilevel Converters 17

1.4.1 Diode Clamped Converters 17

1.4.2 Flying Capacitor Converters 20

1.5 Cascaded Multilevel Converters 23

1.5.1 Submodules and Submodule Strings 23

1.5.2 Modular Multilevel Converter with Half-Bridge Submodules 28

1.5.3 Other Cascaded Converter Topologies 43

1.6 Summary 57

2 Main-Circuit Design 60

2.1 Introduction 60

2.2 Properties and Design Choices of Power Semiconductor Devices for High-Power Applications 61

2.2.1 Historical Overview of the Development Toward Modern Power Semiconductors 61

2.2.2 Basic Conduction Properties of Power Semiconductor Devices 64

2.2.3 PN Junctions for Blocking 65

2.2.4 Conduction Properties and the Need for Carrier Injection 67

2.2.5 Switching Properties 72

2.2.6 Packaging 73

2.2.7 Reliability of Power Semiconductor Devices 80

2.2.8 Silicon Carbide Power Devices 84

2.3 Medium-Voltage Capacitors for Submodules 92

2.3.1 Design and Fabrication 93

2.3.2 Self-Healing and Reliability 95

2.4 Arm Inductors 96

2.5 Submodule Configurations 98

2.5.1 Existing Half-Bridge Submodule Realizations 99

2.5.2 Clamped Single-Submodule 104

2.5.3 Clamped Double-Submodule 105

2.5.4 Unipolar-Voltage Full-Bridge Submodule 106

2.5.5 Five-Level Cross-Connected Submodule 107

2.5.6 Three-Level Cross-Connected Submodule 107

2.5.7 Double Submodule 108

2.5.8 Semi-Full-Bridge Submodule 109

2.5.9 Soft-Switching Submodules 110

2.6 Choice of Main-Circuit Parameters 112

2.6.1 Main Input Data 112

2.6.2 Choice of Power Semiconductor Devices 114

2.6.3 Choice of the Number of Submodules 115

2.6.4 Choice of Submodule Capacitance 117

2.6.5 Choice of Arm Inductance 117

2.7 Handling of Redundant and Faulty Submodules 118

2.7.1 Method 1 118

2.7.2 Method 2 119

2.7.3 Comparison of Method 1 and Method 2 120

2.7.4 Handling of Redundancy Using IGBT Stacks 121

2.8 Auxiliary Power Supplies for Submodules 121

2.8.1 Using the Submodule Capacitor as Power Source 121

2.8.2 Power Supplies with High-Voltage Inputs 123

2.8.3 The Tapped-Inductor Buck Converter 125

2.9 Start-Up Procedures 126

2.10 Summary 126

3 Dynamics and Control 133

3.1 Introduction 133

3.2 Fundamentals 134

3.2.1 Arms 135

3.2.2 Submodules 135

3.2.3 AC Bus 136

3.2.4 DC Bus 136

3.2.5 Currents 136

3.3 Converter Operating Principle and Averaged Dynamic Model 137

3.3.1 Dynamic Relations for the Currents 137

3.3.2 Selection of the Mean Sum Capacitor Voltages 137

3.3.3 Averaging Principle 138

3.3.4 Ideal Selection of the Insertion Indices 140

3.3.5 Sum-Capacitor-Voltage Ripples 141

3.3.6 Maximum Output Voltage 144

3.3.7 DC-Bus Dynamics 146

3.3.8 Time Delays 148

3.4 Per-Phase Output-Current Control 148

3.4.1 Tracking of a Sinusoidal Reference Using a PI Controller 149

3.4.2 Resonant Filters and Generalized Integrators 150

3.4.3 Tracking of a Sinusoidal Reference Using a PR Controller 152

3.4.4 Parameter Selection for a PR Current Controller 153

3.4.5 Output-Current Controller Design 157

3.5 Arm-Balancing (Internal) Control 161

3.5.1 Circulating-Current Control 163

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Design, Control and Application of Modular Multilevel Converters for HVDC Tra...
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