The present monograph as well as the next one (Dorman, M2005) is a result of more than 50 years working in cosmic ray (CR) research. After graduation in December 1950 Moscow Lomonosov State University (Nuclear and Elementary Particle Physics Division, the Team of Theoretical Physics), my supervisor Professor D. I. Blokhintsev planned for me, as a winner of a Red Diploma, to continue my education as an aspirant (a graduate student) to prepare for Ph. D. in his very secret Object in the framework of what was in those time called the Atomic Problem. To my regret the KGB withheld permission, and I, together with other Jewish students who had graduated Nuclear Divisions of Moscow and Leningrad Universities and Institutes, were faced with a real prospect of being without any work. It was our good fortune that at that time there was being brought into being the new Cosmic Ray Project (what at that time was also very secret, but not as secret as the Atomic Problem), and after some time we were directed to work on this Project. It was organized and headed by Prof. S. N. Vernov (President of All-Union Section of Cosmic Rays) and Prof. N. V. Pushkov (Director of IZMIRAN); Prof. E. L. Feinberg headed the theoretical part of the Project.
-Preface. Acknowledgments. Frequently used Abbreviations and Notations. -Part 1: Cosmic Rays As An Object Of Research And As A Research Instrument. Preface to Part 1. 1. Cosmic Rays as an Object of Research. 2. Secondary CR Underground and in the Atmosphere. 3. Coupling Functions, Integral Multiplicities, and Inverse Transformations. 4. Experimental Basis of Cosmic Ray Research. -Part 2: Influence Of The Changing Atmosphere On Cosmic Rays (Meteorological Effects). Preface to Part 2. 5. Theory of Cosmic Ray Meteorological Effects for Measurements in the Atmosphere and Underground (One-Dimensional Approximation). 6. Experimental Investigations of Cosmic Ray Snow, Wind and Barometric Effects. 7. Experimental Investigations of Cosmic Ray Temperature and Humidity Effects. 8. Atmospheric Electric Field Effects in Cosmic Rays. 9. Development of the Theory and Methods of Determination of Cosmic Ray Variations of Atmospheric Origin. -Part 3: Cosmic Ray Influence On The Atmosphere And Atmospheric Processes. Preface to Part 3. 10. Nuclear Reactions of Cosmic Rays with Ground, Water, and Air Atoms; Production of Cosmogenic Nuclides. 11. Cosmic Ray Influence on Atmospheric Electric Field and Thunderstorms, Global Earth's Charge and Global Electric Current. 12. Air Ionization by CR, Influence on the Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation. 13. Cosmic Ray Influence on the Chemical Processes in the Atmosphere and Formation of Ozone Layer. 14. Cosmic Ray Influence on Planetary Cloud-Covering and Long-Term Climate Change. -Part 4: Applications Of Cosmic Ray Research. Preface to Part 4. 15. The Application of the Inverse Problem: Determination of Atmospheric Conditions by Data on Cosmic Ray Meteorological Effects. 16. Meteorological Effects Application to Cosmic Ray Latitude Survey Data Processing. 17. Applications of the Radiocarbon Coupling Function Method to Investigations of Planetary Mixing and Exchange Processes; Influence of H-Bomb Explosions on the Environment; Cosmic Ray Variations in the Past. 18. Potential and Realized Applications of Cosmic Ray Research in Science and Technology. -Conclusion and Problems.