Ilisu is a small village on the River Tigris in the Turkish province of Southeastern Anatolia, close to the boarders of Syria and Iraq. This village has become eponymous for the Ilisu Dam, a hydropower project with a targeted capacity of 1,200 megawatts. At a planned height of 136 meters, the dam would create a reservoir lake with a surface area of more than 300 km2, triggering the displacement of 55-65,000 people. During a field visit to the reservoir area, Ludwig W. Fliesser uncovered that villagers from the affected region had been expropriated without adequate compensation. This turned out to be the last scandal before the official export credit agencies of Austria, Germany and Switzerland withdrew their guarantees for the export loans needed to finance the project. They stated that 'the contractually stipulated requirements in the areas of the environment, cultural heritage and resettlement were not sufficiently fulfilled.' Environmentalists and human rights activists celebrated a great victory. The Turkish government, though, intended to continue the project on its own. Ludwig W. Fliesser approaches the Ilisu Dam project from a governance perspective, examining the stakeholders and their role in governance as well as the relevant international institutions, before going to the bottom of the dispute between dam promoters and opponents.
List of Acronyms 1. Introduction 2. Historical Overview (1954 - 2009) 3. Research Strategy 4. Governance of the Ilisu Project Governance as Scienti c Perspective Governance in the Age of Globalization Governance of the Ilisu Project 5. Stakeholders of the Ilisu Project 5.1 The Project Affected Persons Political Con ict in Southeastern Anatolia The Economic Situation in the Project Region PAPs' Perception of the Ilisu Project Ilisu Village and the Dam Construction Site Hasankeyf - Historical Overview Income, Public Life and Infrastructure of Hasankeyf A Bridge for New Hasankeyf? Perceptions of the Inhabitants of Hasankeyf Participation of the Project Affected Persons 5.2 The Project Owner The Governance of the Southeastern Anatolia Project (Güney Dogu Anadolu Projesi - GAP) State Hydraulic Works (Devlet Su Isleri - DSi) The Project Implementation Unit (PIU) 5.3 The Ilisu Consortium The Enmeshment between the Ilisu Consortium, the Project Owner and the Consultant Company ENCON 5.4 The Export Credit Agencies Purpose of the Export Credit Agencies Incentives for the Of cial Support of Exports Effects of ECAs' Global Competition Governance of the Of cial Support for Export Credits on the Austrian National Level The Role of Parliament in Decision Making on Of cial Support for Export Credits for the Ilisu Project in Austria 5.5 The Transnational Advocacy Network against the Ilisu Dam Project General Characteristics of Networks The Role of Transnational Advocacy Networks in Governance The Transnational Campaign against the Ilisu Dam Tactics used in the Stop-Ilisu Campaign Reasons for the Success of the Stop-Ilisu Dam Campaign 6. International Institutions affecting the Governance of the Ilisu Project Sovereign Statehood: International Institution Par Excellence International Laws to Protect Human Rights Regulations for the Utilization of International Water Courses The Safeguard Policies of the World Bank The OECD Common Approaches Ad Hoc Regulation: The Agreed Minutes of the Final Assessment Meeting 7. The Ilisu Project Benchmarked Against the World Bank's Safeguard Policies for Resettlement OP / BP 4.12 The Aim of the WB Policies for Involuntary Resettlement ECAs' Appraisal of the Project Benchmarked against OP / BP 4.12 The Gap between Turkish Expropriation Laws and the Standards of the World Bank Implementation Phase of the Ilisu Project: 2007 to 2009 Expropriation of Lands for "New Hasankeyf" Conclusions about Compliance with World Bank Standards 8. Legitimacy of the Ilisu Project Some Re ections on Legitimacy and Representative Democracy Rational Discourse as a Source of Legitimacy The Rationale for the Ilisu Project Stakeholders' unequal access to the discourse on the Ilisu Project Accountability in the Governance of the Ilisu Project Consequences of the Legitimation De cit of the Ilisu Project 9. Conclusions 10. Practical Suggestions to Enhance Participation of the Project Affected People in the Governance of the Southeastern Anatolia Project GAP 11. Recent Development and Future Outlook References Abstract Acknowledgments ANNEX I - Map of Hasankeyf showing the Reservoir Area and the Relocation Site for "New Hasankeyf" ANNEX II - Photographs from the project area (Ilisu, Hasankeyf, Kesmeköprü)