Material-Integrated Intelligent Systems

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Ein Referenzwerk von Autoren aus Wissenschaft und Forschung mit engen Verbindungen zur Industrie vereint Aspekte der Material- und Computerwissenschaften und des Engineering zu einem einheitlichen Blick auf vielversprechende Ansätze für materialintegrierte intelligente Systeme.

Stefan Bosse studied physics at the University of Bremen, Germany, from which he also received his PhD. Since 2008 he is actively involved in different projects in the University of Bremen's Scientific Center ISIS (Integrated Solutions in Sensorial Structure Engineering) pushing interdisciplinary research, and recently joined the ISIS council.

Dirk Lehmhus joined the Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials (IFAM) in Bremen, Germany, in 1998 and subsequently obtained a PhD in production technology from Bremen University for optimization studies of aluminium foam production processes and properties. Since May 2009 he is Managing Director at the University of Bremen's Scientific Centre ISIS dedicated to the development of sensorial materials and sensor-equipped structures.

Walter Lang joined the Fraunhofer Institute for Solid State Technology (EMFT) in Munich, Germany, in 1987 where he worked on microsystems technology. In 1995, he became Head of the Sensors Department in the Institute of Micromachining and Information Technology of the Hahn Schickard Society. In 2003, he joined the University of Bremen where he is currently heading the Institute for Microsensors, -actuators and -systems at the Microsystems Center Bremen.

Matthias Busse holds the chair for near net-shape manufacturing technology in the Faculty of Production Engineering at the University of Bremen since 2003. At the same time, he became Director of the Fraunhofer IFAM. After his PhD in mechanical engineering he worked in various positions at Volkswagen Central Research, ultimately as Head of Production Research. Matthias Busse represents the University of Bremen's Scientific Centre ISIS as speaker of the board of directors.

Combining different perspectives from materials science, engineering, and computer science, this reference provides a unified view of the various aspects necessary for the successful realization of intelligent systems.
The editors and authors are from academia and research institutions with close ties to industry, and are thus able to offer first-hand information here. They adopt a unique, three-tiered approach such that readers can gain basic, intermediate, and advanced topical knowledge. The technology section of the book is divided into chapters covering the basics of sensor integration in materials, the challenges associated with this approach, data processing, evaluation, and validation, as well as methods for achieving an autonomous energy supply. The applications part then goes on to showcase typical scenarios where material-integrated intelligent systems are already in use, such as for structural health monitoring and smart textiles.


Foreword XV

Preface XIX

Part One Introduction 1

1 On Concepts and Challenges of Realizing Material-Integrated Intelligent Systems 3
Stefan Bosse and Dirk Lehmhus

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 System Development Methodologies and Tools (Part Two) 7

1.3 Sensor Technologies and Material Integration (Part Three and Four) 8

1.4 Signal and Data Processing (Part Five) 15

1.5 Networking and Communication (Part Six) 17

1.6 Energy Supply and Management (Part Seven) 21

1.7 Applications (Part Eight) 21

References 24

Part Two System Development 29

2 Design Methodology for Intelligent Technical Systems 31
Mareen Vaßholz, Roman Dumitrescu, and Jürgen Gausemeier

2.1 From Mechatronics to Intelligent Technical Systems 32

2.2 Self-Optimizing Systems 36

2.3 Design Methodology for Intelligent Technical Systems 38

2.3.1 Domain-Spanning Conceptual Design 41

2.3.2 Domain-Specific Conceptual Design 50

References 51

3 Smart Systems Design Methodologies and Tools 55
Nicola Bombieri, Franco Fummi, Giuliana Gangemi, Michelangelo Grosso,

Enrico Macii, Massimo Poncino, and Salvatore Rinaudo

3.1 Introduction 55

3.2 Smart Electronic Systems and Their Design Challenges 56

3.3 The Smart Systems Codesign before SMAC 57

3.4 The SMAC Platform 60

3.4.1 The Platform Overview 61 System CSystemVue Cosimulation 61 ADS and the Thermal Simulation 63 EMPro Extension and ADS Integration 64 Automated EM Circuit Cosimulation in ADS 64 HIF Suite Toolsuite 65 The MEMS+ Platform 66

3.4.2 The (Co)Simulation Levels and the DesignDomains Matrix 67

3.5 Case Study: A Sensor Node for Drift-Free Limb Tracking 69

3.5.1 System Architecture 71

3.5.2 Model Development and System-Level Simulation 71

3.5.3 Results 73

3.6 Conclusions 76

Acknowledgments 77

References 77

Part Three Sensor Technologies 81

4 Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) 83
Li Yunjia

4.1 Introduction 83

4.1.1 What Is MEMS 83

4.1.2 Why MEMS 84

4.1.3 MEMS Sensors 84

4.1.4 Goal of This Chapter 85

4.2 Materials 85

4.2.1 Silicon 85

4.2.2 Dielectrics 86

4.2.3 Metals 87

4.3 Microfabrication Technologies 87

4.3.1 Silicon Wafers 87

4.3.2 Lithography 88

4.3.3 Etching 91

4.3.4 Deposition Techniques 93

4.3.5 Other Processes 94

4.3.6 Surface and Bulk Micromachining 95

4.4 MEMS Sensor 95

4.4.1 Resistive Sensors 95

4.4.2 Capacitive Sensors 99

4.5 Sensor Systems 103

References 104

5 Fiber-Optic Sensors 107
Yi Yang, Kevin Chen, and Nikhil Gupta

5.1 Introduction to Fiber-Optic Sensors 107

5.1.1 Sensing Principles 108

5.1.2 Types of Optical Fibers 108

5.2 Trends in Sensor Fabrication and Miniaturization 110

5.3 Fiber-Optic Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring 112

5.3.1 Sensors for Cure Monitoring of Composites 114

5.3.2 Embedded FOS in Composite Materials 114

5.3.3 Surface-Mounted FOS in Composite Materials 115

5.3.4 FOS for Structural Monitoring 115 Aerospace Structures 115 Civil Structures 116 Marine Structures 116

5.4 Frequency Modulation Sensors 117

5.4.1 Bragg Grating Sensors 117

5.4.2 FabryPérot Interferometer Sensor 118

5.4.3 Whispering Gallery Mode Sensors 119

5.5 Intensity Modulation Sensors 122

5.5.1 Fiber Microbend Sensors 122

5.5.2 Fiber-Optic Loop Sensor ...

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Material-Integrated Intelligent Systems
Technology and Applications
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