Classic power system dynamics text now with phasor measurement and simulation toolbox This new edition addresses the needs of dynamic modeling and simulation relevant to power system planning, design, and operation, including a systematic derivation of synchronous machine dynamic models together with speed and voltage control subsystems. Reduced-order modeling based on integral manifolds is used as a firm basis for understanding the derivations and limitations of lower-order dynamic models. Following these developments, multi-machine model interconnected through the transmission network is formulated and simulated using numerical simulation methods. Energy function methods are discussed for direct evaluation of stability. Small-signal analysis is used for determining the electromechanical modes and mode-shapes, and for power system stabilizer design. Time-synchronized high-sampling-rate phasor measurement units (PMUs) to monitor power system disturbances have been implemented throughout North America and many other countries. In this second edition, new chapters on synchrophasor measurement and using the Power System Toolbox for dynamic simulation have been added. These new materials will reinforce power system dynamic aspects treated more analytically in the earlier chapters. Key features: * Systematic derivation of synchronous machine dynamic models and simplification. * Energy function methods with an emphasis on the potential energy boundary surface and the controlling unstable equilibrium point approaches. * Phasor computation and synchrophasor data applications. * Book companion website for instructors featuring solutions and PowerPoint files. Website for students featuring MATLAB files. Power System Dynamics and Stability, 2nd Edition, with Synchrophasor Measurement and Power System Toolbox combines theoretical as well as practical information for use as a text for formal instruction or for reference by working engineers.
Peter W. Sauer obtained his BS in Electrical Engineering from the University of Missouri at Rolla in 1969, and the MS and PhD degrees in Electrical Engineering from Purdue University in 1974 and 1977 respectively. He served as a facilities design engineer in the U.S. Air Force from 1969 to 1973. He is currently the Grainger Professor of Electrical Engineering at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign where he has been since 1977. His main work is in modeling and simulation of power systems with applications to steady-state and transient stability analysis. He served as the program director for power systems at the National Science Foundation from 1990 to 1991. He was a cofounder of PowerWorld Corporation and the Power Systems Engineering Research Center (PSERC). He is a registered Professional Engineer in Virginia and Illinois, a Fellow of the IEEE, and a member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering.
M. A. Pai is Professor Emeritus in Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. He received his BE degree from Univ. of Madras, India in 1953, MS and PhD degrees from University of California, Berkeley in 1957 and 1961 respectively. He was with the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India from 1963 to 1981 and at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, from 1981 to 2003. His research interests are in dynamics and stability of power systems, smart grid, renewable resources and power system computation. He is the author of several text books and research monographs in these areas. He is a Fellow of IEEE, I.E. (India) and the Indian National Science Academy.
Joe H. Chow is Professor of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering at Rensselaer. He received his BS degrees in Electrical Engineering and Mathematics from the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, in 1974, and his MS and PhD degrees from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, in 1975 and 1977. He worked in the power systems business at General Electric Company in 1978 and joined Rensselaer in 1987. His research interests include power system dynamics and control, voltage stability analysis, FACTS controllers, synchronized phasor measurements and applications, and integration of renewable resources. He is a fellow of IEEE, and past recipient of the Donald Eckman Award from the American Automatic Control Council, the Control Systems Technology Award from the IEEE Control Systems Society, and the Charles Concordia Power Systems Engineering Award from the IEEE Power and Energy Systems Society.
Inhalt
Preface xiii
About the Companion Website xv
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Physical Structures 2
1.3 Time-Scale Structures 3
1.4 Political Structures 4
1.5 The Phenomena of Interest 5
1.6 New Chapters Added to this Edition 5
2 Electromagnetic Transients 7
2.1 The Fastest Transients 7
2.2 Transmission Line Models 7
2.3 Solution Methods 12
2.4 Problems 17
3 Synchronous Machine Modeling 19
3.1 Conventions and Notation 19
3.2 Three-Damper-Winding Model 20
3.3 Transformations and Scaling 21
3.4 The Linear Magnetic Circuit 29
3.5 The Nonlinear Magnetic Circuit 35
3.6 Single-Machine Steady State 40
3.7 Operational Impedances and Test Data 44
3.8 Problems 49
4 Synchronous Machine Control Models 53
4.1 Voltage and Speed Control Overview 53
4.2 Exciter Models 53
4.3 Voltage Regulator Models 58
4.4 Turbine Models 62
4.4.1 Hydroturbines 62
4.4.2 Steam Turbines 64
4.5 Speed Governor Models 67
4.6 Problems 70
5 Single-Machine Dynamic Models 71
5.1 Terminal Constraints 71
5.2 The Multi-Time-Scale Model 74
5.3 Elimination of Stator/Network Transients 76
5.4 The Two-Axis Model 81
5.5 The One-Axis (Flux-Decay) Model 83
5.6 The Classical Model 84
5.7 Damping Torques 86
5.8 Single-Machine Infinite-Bus System 90
5.9 Synchronous Machine Saturation 94
5.10 Problems 100
6 Multimachine Dynamic Models 101
6.1 The Synchronously Rotating Reference Frame 101
6.2 Network and R-L Load Constraints 103
6.3 Elimination of Stator/Network Transients 105
6.3.1 Generalization of Network and Load Dynamic Models 110
6.3.2 The Special Case of Impedance Loads 112
6.4 Multimachine Two-Axis Model 113
6.4.1 The Special Case of Impedance Loads 115
6.5 Multimachine FluxDecay Model 116
6.5.1 The Special Case of Impedance Loads 117
6.6 Multimachine Classical Model 118
6.6.1 The Special Case of Impedance Loads 119
6.7 Multimachine Damping Torques 120
6.8 Multimachine Models with Saturation 121
6.8.1 The Multimachine Two-Axis Model with Synchronous Machine Saturation 123
6.8.2 The Multimachine Flux-Decay Model with Synchronous Machine Saturation 124
6.9 Frequency During Transients 126
6.10 Angle References and an Infinite Bus 127
6.11 Automatic Generation Control (AGC) 129
7 Multimachine Simulation 135
7.1 Differential-Algebraic Model 135
7.1.1 Generator Buses 136
7.1.2 Load Buses 137
7.2 Stator Algebraic Equations 138
7.2.1 Polar Form 138
7.2.2 Rectangular Form 138
7.2.3 Alternate Form of Stator Algebraic Equations 139
7.3 Network Equations 140
7.3.1 Power-Balance Form 140
7.3.2 Real Power Equations 141
7.3.3 Reactive Power Equations 141
7.3.4 Current-Balance Form 142
7.4 Industry Model 149
7.5 Simplification of the Two-Axis Model 153
7.5.1 Simplification #1 (Neglecting Transient Saliency in the Synchronous Machine) 153
7.5.2 Simplification #2 (Constant Impedance Load in the Transmission System) 154
7.6 Initial Conditions (Full Model) 158
7.6.1 Load-Flow Formulation 158
7.6.2 Standard Load Flow 159
7.6.3 Initial Conditions for Dynamic Analysis 160
7.6.4 Angle Reference, Infinite Bus, and COI Reference 165
7.7 Numerical Solution: Power-Balance Form 165
7.7.1 SI Method 165
7.7.2 Review of Newton's Method 165
7.7.3 Numerical Solution Using SI Method 166
7.7.4 Di...