Marine Chemical Monitoring

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Beschreibung

Combining laboratory experience with research and policy developments, this book provides an insight into the historical background of marine monitoring, its regulatory frameworks and science policy interactions. With experience in the European Commission, the author draws from practical experience in research and policy implementation to present a concise review of marine monitoring on an international level. The author deals with monitoring and related QA/QC principles, focusing on monitoring types, while describing general features of analytical methods used in marine monitoring. The book concludes with a discussion about how to achieve metrology principles (measurement traceability) in marine monitoring.



Autorentext
Philippe Quevauviller is Associate Professor at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) in Belgium where he teaches as part of the Interuniversity Programme on Water Resource Engineering. He is also Policy Officer at the European Commission, where he is responsible for research programming in the area of security.

Inhalt

Preface ix

Glossary xv

Abbreviations xxi

Chapter 1. Marine Monitoring: Historical Background, Regulatory Framework and SciencePolicy Interactions 1

1.1. Introduction 1

1.2. International institutions 3

1.2.1. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea 5

1.2.2. United Nations Environment Programme 6

1.2.3. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO 10

1.2.4. European Union 11

1.3. International conventions/programs 12

1.3.1. UN Convention on the Law of the Sea 12

1.3.2. London Dumping Convention 13

1.3.3. OSPAR Conventions 13

1.3.4. Helsinki Convention 16

1.3.5. MARPOL 17

1.3.6. Mediterranean Sea: Barcelona Convention 18

1.3.7. Bonn Agreement 19

1.3.8. Arctic Ocean: Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme 19

1.3.9. North East Pacific Ocean 20

1.3.10. North West Atlantic Ocean 21

1.3.11. North Sea conferences 22

1.3.12. Other conventions 22

1.4. The EU marine strategy 22

1.4.1. The notion of good environmental status 24

1.4.2. Marine strategies of the Member States 25

1.4.3. Monitoring in the MSFD policy context 26

1.5. Sciencepolicy interactions 29

1.5.1. Scientific foundation of environmental policies: where do we stand? 29

1.5.2. EU scientific framework in support of water and marine policies 31

1.5.3. Identification of research needs in the water policy sectors 33

1.5.4. Interactions with the scientific community 34

1.5.5. Science-based development of an integrated environmental policy 37

1.6. Conclusions 39

Chapter 2. Monitoring and Quality Assurance 41

2.1. Monitoring of what? 41

2.1.1. Selection of compartments 41

2.1.2. Selection of compounds 42

2.2. Quality of data 44

2.2.1. Introduction 44

2.2.2. Interlaboratory comparisons 45

2.2.3. Guidelines 47

2.2.4. (Certified) reference materials 48

2.2.5. Laboratory performance studies 49

2.2.6. Example: monitoring of trace metals in seawater 51

2.3. Certified reference materials 53

2.3.1. Introduction 53

2.3.2. Production and use of reference materials 53

2.3.3. CRMs for trace elements in nutrients 62

2.3.4. CRMs for organic non-halogenated compounds 66

2.3.5. CRMs for organic halogenated compounds 68

2.3.6. Future needs of CRMs 71

Chapter 3. Types of Monitoring 73

3.1. Classical chemical marine monitoring 73

3.1.1. Introduction 73

3.1.2. The basis and purpose of marine monitoring 74

3.1.3. Some considerations around classical monitoring 77

3.1.4. Designing a sampling program 80

3.1.5. Sample collection and immediate handling 82

3.1.6. Sample storage (short- and long-term) 83

3.1.7. Laboratory analyses 86

3.1.8. The final assessment 93

3.1.9. Conclusions 94

3.2. In situ methods 94

3.2.1. Introduction 94

3.2.2. In situ automatic analyzers 96

3.2.3. Passive sampling technologies 99

3.2.4. Spectroscopic methods 106

3.2.5. Electrochemical techniques 110

3.2.6. Sensors 113

3.2.7. Biological early warning systems 116

3.2.8. Future 119

3.3. Biomonitoring 121

3.3.1. Introduction 121

3.3.2. Analytical trends in chemical monitoring of marine biota 123

3.3.3. Main features of biota monitoring programs 128

3.3.4. Analytical methods 131

3.3.5. Integration of chemical and biological effect monitoring 136

3.4. Use of sediment in coastal monitoring 139

3.4.1. Introduction 139

3.4.2. Sediment monitoring in the WFD context 142

3.4.3. Chemical monitoring in estuaries for coastal management 142

Chapter 4. A...

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Produktinformationen

Titel
Marine Chemical Monitoring
Untertitel
Policies, Techniques and Metrological Principles
Autor
EAN
9781119006992
ISBN
978-1-119-00699-2
Format
E-Book (epub)
Hersteller
Wiley
Herausgeber
Wiley-Iste
Genre
Wärme-, Energie- und Kraftwerktechnik
Veröffentlichung
07.01.2016
Digitaler Kopierschutz
Adobe-DRM
Dateigrösse
1.64 MB
Anzahl Seiten
310
Jahr
2016
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