This book aims to show how hemodynamic numerical models based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can be developed. An approach to fluid mechanics is made from a historical point of view focusing on the Navier-Stokes Equations and a fluid-mechanical description of blood flow. Finally, the techniques most used to visualize cardiac flows and validate numerical models are detailed, paying special attention to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in case of an in vivo validation and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) for an in vitro validation.
Provides information required to validate Computational Fluid Dynamics models to initial researchers
Gives a general view of the fluid dynamics description of the blood flow
Compares techniques used to visualize cardiac flows focusing on Particle Image Velocimetry and Magnetic Resonance Imaging
• Chapter 1: Introduction. It constitutes a presentation of the book from an overview. It is justified the use of CFD for the study of cardiovascular diseases.
• Chapter 2: Fluid Mechanics History. It constitutes an approximation to Fluid Mechanics from a historical point of view. Special attention will be paid to the Navier-Stokes Equations, which govern the movement of fluids.
• Chapter 3: Fluid-mechanical description of blood flow. This is an analysis from the engineering point of view of the characteristics of blood flow, covering theoretical and experimental fundamentals. In this chapter, a fluid dynamic characterization of the flow in the heart and blood vessels will be performed. At the end, a description of the mathematical models of hemodynamics is presented.
• Chapter 4: Cardiac flow visualization techniques. Existing cardiac flow visualization techniques will be described, both in vivo and in vitro. At the end of the chapter it will be shown the procedure to follow to validate a numerical CFD model (in silico technique).
• Chapter 5: Techniques for the validation of numerical models. The methodology to measure with the most used techniques for the validation of hemodynamic numerical models will be detailed: PC-MRI (Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging) in the case of in vivo validations and PIV for in vitro validations. A procedure to estimate measurement uncertainty is also included.