A guide to the chemical agents that protect plants from various environmental stressorsProtective Chemical Agents in the Amelioration of Plant Abiotic Stress offers a guide to the diverse chemical agents that have the potential to mitigate different forms of abiotic stresses in plants. Edited by two experts on the topic, the book explores the role of novel chemicals and shows how using such unique chemical agents can tackle the oxidative damages caused by environmental stresses.Exogenous application of different chemical agents or chemical priming of seeds presents opportunities for crop stress management. The use of chemical compounds as protective agents has been found to improve plant tolerance significantly in various crop and non-crop species against a range of different individually applied abiotic stresses by regulating the endogenous levels of the protective agents within plants. This important book:* Explores the efficacy of various chemical agents to eliminate abiotic stress* Offers a groundbreaking look at the topic and reviews the most recent advances in the field* Includes information from noted authorities on the subject* Promises to benefit agriculture under stress conditions at the ground levelWritten for researchers, academicians, and scientists, Protective Chemical Agents in the Amelioration of Plant Abiotic Stress details the wide range of protective chemical agents, their applications, and their intricate biochemical and molecular mechanism of action within the plant systems during adverse situations.
ABOUT THE EDITORS ARYADEEP ROYCHOUDHURY is Assistant Professor, Department of Biotechnology, St. Xavier's College (Autonomous), Kolkata, India. DURGESH KUMAR TRIPATHI is Assistant Professor, Amity Institute of Organic Agriculture, Amity University, Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India.
A GUIDE TO THE CHEMICAL AGENTS THAT PROTECT PLANTS FROM VARIOUS ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS Protective Chemical Agents in the Amelioration of Plant Abiotic Stress offers a guide to the diverse chemical agents that have the potential to mitigate different forms of abiotic stresses in plants. Edited by two experts on the topic, the book explores the role of novel chemicals and shows how using such unique chemical agents can tackle the oxidative damages caused by environmental stresses. Exogenous application of different chemical agents or chemical priming of seeds presents opportunities for crop stress management. The use of chemical compounds as protective agents has been found to improve plant tolerance significantly in various crop and non-crop species against a range of different individually applied abiotic stresses by regulating the endogenous levels of the protective agents within plants. This important book: * Explores the efficacy of various chemical agents to eliminate abiotic stress * Offers a groundbreaking look at the topic and reviews the most recent advances in the field * Includes information from noted authorities on the subject * Promises to benefit agriculture under stress conditions at the ground level Written for researchers, academics, and scientists, Protective Chemical Agents in the Amelioration of Plant Abiotic Stress details the wide range of protective chemical agents, their applications, and their intricate biochemical and molecular mechanism of action within the plant systems during adverse situations.
List of Contributors xix 1 Role of Proline and Glycine Betaine in Overcoming Abiotic Stresses 1 Murat Dikilitas, Eray Simsek, and Aryadeep Roychoudhury 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Responses of Crop Plants Under Abiotic Stresses 2 1.3 Mechanisms of Osmoprotectant Functions in Overcoming Stress 3 1.4 Application of Osmoprotectants in Stress Conditions 7 1.5 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 14 Acknowledgment 14 References 15 2 Glycine Betaine and Crop Abiotic Stress Tolerance: An Update 24 Giridara-Kumar Surabhi and Arpita Rout 2.1 Introduction 24 2.2 Biosynthesis of GB 25 2.3 Accumulation of GB Under Abiotic Stress in Crop Plants 26 2.4 Exogenous Application of GB in Crop Plants Under Abiotic Stress 27 2.5 Transgenic Approach to Enhance GB Accumulation in Crop Plants Under Abiotic Stress 33 2.6 Effect of GB on Reproductive Stage in Different Crops 35 2.7 Pyramiding GB Synthesizing Genes for Enhancing Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants 41 2.8 Conclusion and Future Prospective 43 Acknowledgment 43 Reference 44 3 Osmoprotective Role of Sugar in Mitigating Abiotic Stress in Plants 53 Farhan Ahmad, Ananya Singh, and Aisha Kamal 3.1 Introduction 53 3.2 Involvement of Sugar in Plant Developmental Process 54 3.3 Multidimensional Role of Sugar Under Optimal and Stressed Conditions 55 References 62 4 Sugars and Sugar Polyols in Overcoming Environmental Stresses 71 Saswati Bhattacharya and Anirban Kundu 4.1 Introduction 71 4.2 Types of Sugars and Sugar Alcohols 72 4.3 Mechanism of Action of Sugars and Polyols 77 4.4 Involvement of Sugars and Polyols in Abiotic Stress Tolerance 82 4.5 Engineering Abiotic Stress Tolerance Using Sugars and Sugar Alcohols 87 4.6 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 91 References 92 5 Ascorbate and Tocopherols in Mitigating Oxidative Stress 102 Kingsuk Das 5.1 Introduction 102 5.2 Role of Ascorbic Acid in Plant Physiological Processes 103 5.3 Transgenic Approaches for Overproduction of Ascorbate Content for Fight Against Abiotic Stress 104 5.4 Conclusion 113 References 114 6 Role of Glutathione Application in Overcoming Environmental Stress 122 Nimisha Amist and N. B. Singh 6.1 Introduction 122 6.2 Glutathione Molecular Structure 123 6.3 Glutathione Biosynthesis and Distribution 124 6.4 Glutathione-induced Oxidative Stress Tolerance 127 6.5 Impact of Abiotic Stress on Glutathione Content in Various Plants 129 6.6 Exogenous Application of GSH in Plants 131 6.7 Cross Talk on Glutathione Signaling Under Abiotic Stress 131 6.8 Conclusion 137 References 137 7 Modulation of Abiotic Stress Tolerance Through Hydrogen Peroxide 147 Murat Dikilitas, Eray Simsek, and Aryadeep Roychoudhury 7.1 Introduction 147 7.2 Abiotic Stress in Crop Plants 149 7.3 Mechanisms of Hydrogen Peroxide in Cells 149 7.4 Role of Hydrogen Peroxide in Overcoming Stress 154 7.5 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 163 Acknowledgment 163 References 163 8 Exogenous Nitric Oxide- and Hydrogen Sulfide-induced Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants 174 Mirza Hasanuzzaman, M. H. M. Borhannuddin Bhuyan, Kamrun Nahar, Sayed Mohammad Mohsin, Jubayer Al Mahmud, Khursheda Parvin, and Masayuki Fujita 8.1 Introduction 174 8.2 Nitric Oxide Biosynthesis in Plants 175 8.3 Hydrogen Sulfide Biosynthesis in Plants 177 8.4 Application Methods of NO and H2S Donors in Plants 178 8.5 Exogenous NO-induced Abiotic Stress Tolerance 178 8.6 Conclusions and Outlook 202 References 203 9 Role of Nitric Oxide in Overcoming Heavy Metal Stress 214 Pradyumna Kumar Singh, Madhu Tiwari, Maria Kidwai, Dipali Srivastava, Rudra Deo Tripathi, and Debasis Chakrabarty 9.1 Introduction 214 9.2 Nitric Oxide and Osmolyte Synthesis During Heavy Metal Stress 216 9.3 Relation of Nitric Oxide and Secondary Metabolite Modulation in Heavy Metal Stress 217 9.4 Regulation of Redox Regulatory Mechanism by Nitric Oxide 218 9.5 Nitric Oxide and Hormonal Cross Talk During Heavy Metal Stress 222 9.6 Conclusion 227 References 227 10 Protective Role of Sodium Nitroprusside in Overcoming Diverse Environmental Stresses in Plants 238 Satabdi Ghosh 10.1 Introduction 238 10.2 Role of SNP in Alleviating Abiotic Stress 239 10.3 Conclusion and Future Prospect 245 Acknowledgments 245 References 245 11 Role of Growth Regulators and Phytohormones in Overcoming Environmental Stress 254 Deepesh Bhatt, Manoj Nath, Mayank Sharma, Megha D. Bhatt, Deepak Singh Bisht, and Naresh V. Butani 11.1 Introduction 254 11.2 Function of Classical Plant Hormones in Stress Mitigation 256 11.3 Role of Specialized Stress-responsive Hormones 260 11.4 Hormone Cross Talk and Stress Alleviation 265 11.5 Conclusions and Future Perspective 268 References 268 12 Abscisic Acid Application and Abiotic Stress Amelioration 280 Nasreena Sajjad , Eijaz Ahmed Bhat, Durdana Shah, Abubakar Wani, Nazish Nazir, Rohaya Ali, and Sumaya Hassan 12.1 Introduction 280 12.2 Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis 281 12.3 Role of Abscisic Acid in Plant Stress Tolerance 282 12.4 Regulation of ABA Biosynthesis Through Abiotic Stress 282 12.5 ABA and Abiotic Stress Signaling 283 12.6 Drought Stress 284 12.7 UV-B Stress 284 12.8 Water Stress 285 12.9 ABA and Transcription Factors in Stress Tolerance 285 12.10 Conclusion 286 References 286 13 Role of Polyamines in Mitigating Abiotic Stress 291 Rohaya Ali, Sumaya Hassan, Durdana Shah, Nasreena Sajjad, and Eijaz Ahmed Bhat 13.1 Introduction 291 13.2 Distribution and Function of Polyamines 293 13.3 Synthesis, Catabolism, and Role of Polyamines 293 13.4 Polyamines and Abiotic Stress 295 13.5 Conclusion 299 References 300 14 Role of Melatonin in Amelioration of Abiotic Stress-induced Damages 306 Nasreena Sajjad, Eijaz Ahmed Bhat, Sumaya Hassan, Rohaya Ali , and Durdana Shah 14.1 Introduction 306 14.2 Melatonin Biosynthesis in Plants 306 14.3 Modulation of Melatonin Levels in Plants Under Stress Conditions 307 14.4 Role of Melatonin in Amelioration of Stress-induced Damages 309 14.5 Mechanisms of Melatonin-mediated Stress Tolerance 311 14.6 Conclusion 313 References 313 15 Brassinosteroids in Lowering Abiotic Stress-mediated Damages 318 Gunjan Sirohi and Meenu Kapoor 15.1 Introduction 318 15.2 BR-induced Stress Tolerance in Plants 319 15.3 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 323 References 323 16 Strigolactones in Overcoming Environmental Stresses 327 Megha D. Bhatt, and Deepesh Bhatt 16.1 Introduction 327 16.2 Various Roles of SLs in Plants 331 16.3 Cross Talk Between Other Phytohormones and SLs 335 16.4 Conclusion 336 References 336 17 Emerging Roles of Salicylic Acid and Jasmonates in Plant Abiotic Stress Responses 342 Parankusam Santisree, Lakshmi Chandra Lekha Jalli, Pooja Bhatnagar-Mathur, and Kiran K. Sharma 17.1 Introduction 342 17.2 Salicylic Acid 343 17.3 Biosynthesis and Metabolism of SA 343 17.4 SA in Abiotic Stress Tolerance 346 17.5 Signaling of SA Under Abiotic Stress 351 17.6 Jasmonic Acid 352 17.7 Physiological Function of Jasmonates 353 17.8 Biosynthesis of Jasmonic Acid 354 17.9 JA Signaling in Plants 355 17.10 JA and Abiotic Stress 356 17.11 Role of Jasmonates in Temperature Stress 357 17.12 Metal Stress and Role of Jasmonates 358 17.13 Jasmonates and Salt Stress 359 17.14 Jasmonates and Water Stress 360 17.15 Cross Talk Between JA and SA Under Abiotic Stress 361 17.16 Concluding Remarks 362 Acknowledgments 363 References 363 18 Multifaceted Roles of Salicylic Acid and Jasmonic Acid in Plants Against Abiotic Stresses 374 Nilanjan Chakraborty , Anik Sarkar, and Krishnendu Acharya 18.1 Introduction 374 18.2 Biosynthesis of SA and JA 374 18.3 Exogenous Application of SA and JA in Abiotic Stress Responses 377 18.4 Future Goal and Concluding Remarks 378 References 383 19 Brassinosteroids and Salicylic Acid as Chemical Agents to Ameliorate Diverse Environmental Stresses in Plants 389 B. Vidya Vardhini 19.1 Introduction 389 19.2 Overview of PGRs 389 19.3 BRs and SA in Ameliorating Abiotic Stresses 390 19.4 Conclusion 400 References 400 20 Role of gamma-Aminobutyric Acid in the Mitigation of Abiotic Stress in Plants 413 Ankur Singh and Aryadeep Roychoudhury 20.1 Introduction 413 20.2 GABA Metabolism 414 20.3 Protective Role of GABA Under Different Stresses 415 20.4 Conclusion and Future Perspective 419 Acknowledgments 419 Reference 420 21 Isoprenoids in Plant Protection Against Abiotic Stress 424 Syed Uzma Jalil and Mohammad Israil Ansari 21.1 Introduction 424 21.2 Synthesis of Free Radicals During Abiotic Stress Conditions 426 21.3 Biosynthesis of Isoprenoids in Plants 427 21.4 Functions and Mechanisms of Isoprenoids During Abiotic Stresses 428 21.5 Conclusion 430 Acknowledgments 431 References 431 22 Involvement of Sulfur in the Regulation of Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants 437 Santanu Samanta, Ankur Singh, and Aryadeep Roychoudhury 22.1 Introduction 437 22.2 Sulfur Metabolism 438 22.3 Sulfur Compounds Having Potential to Ameliorate Abiotic Stress 438 22.4 Role of Sulfur Compounds During Salinity Stress 441 22.5 Role of Sulfur Compounds During Drought Stress 443 22.6 Role of Sulfur Compounds During Temperature Stress 444 22.7 Role of Sulfur Compounds During Light Stress 446 22.8 Role of Sulfur Compounds in Heavy Metal Stress 447 22.9 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 452 Acknowledgments 452 References 453 23 Role of Thiourea in Mitigating Different Environmental Stresses in Plants 467 Vikas Yadav Patade, Ganesh C. Nikalje, and Sudhakar Srivastava 23.1 Introduction 467 23.2 Modes of TU Application 468 23.3 Biological Roles of TU Under Normal Conditions 469 23.4 Role of Exogenous Application of TU in Mitigation of Environmental Stresses 470 23.5 Mechanisms of TU-mediated Enhanced Stress Tolerance 474 23.6 Success Stories of TU Application at Field Level 476 23.7 Conclusion 477 References 478 24 Oxylipins and Strobilurins as Protective Chemical Agents to Generate Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants 483 Aditya Banerjee and Aryadeep Roychoudhury 24.1 Introduction 483 24.2 Signaling Mediated by Oxylipins 484 24.3 Roles of Oxylipins in Abiotic Stress Tolerance 484 24.4 Role of Strobilurins in Abiotic Stress Tolerance 486 24.5 Conclusion 487 24.6 Future Perspectives 487 Acknowledgments 487 References 487 25 Role of Triacontanol in Overcoming Environmental Stresses 491 Abbu Zaid, Mohd. Asgher, Ishfaq Ahmad Wani, and Shabir H. Wani 25.1 Introduction 491 25.2 Environmental Stresses and Tria as a Principal Stress-Alleviating Component in Diverse Crop Plants 493 25.3 Assessment of Foliar and Seed Priming Tria Application in Regulating Diverse Physio-biochemical Traits in Plants 497 25.4 Conclusion and Future Prospects 499 Acknowledgments 502 References 502 26 Penconazole, Paclobutrazol, and Triacontanol in Overcoming Environmental Stress in Plants 510 Saket Chandra and Aryadeep Roychoudhury 26.1 Introduction 510 26.2 Nature of Damages by Different Abiotic Stresses 512 26.3 Synthesis of Chemicals 515 26.4 Role of Exogenously Added Penconazole, Paclobutrazol, and Triacontanol During Stress 516 26.5 Conclusion 523 Acknowledgment 524 References 524 27 Role of Calcium and Potassium in Amelioration of Environmental Stress in Plants 535 Jainendra Pathak, Haseen Ahmed, Neha Kumari, Abha Pandey, Rajneesh, and Rajeshwar P. Sinha 27.1 Introduction 535 27.2 Biological Functions of Calcium and Potassium in Plants 537 27.3 Calcium and Potassium Uptake, Transport, and Assimilation in Plants 538 27.4 Calcium- and Potassium-induced Abiotic Stress Signaling 540 27.5 Role of Calcium and Potassium in Abiotic Stress Tolerance 542 27.6 Waterlogging Conditions 550 27.7 High Light Intensity 550 27.8 Conclusion 551 Acknowledgments 551 References 552 28 Role of Nitric Oxide and Calcium Signaling in Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants 563 Zaffar Malik, Sobia Afzal, Muhammad Danish, Ghulam Hassan Abbasi, Syed Asad Hussain Bukhari, Muhammad Imran Khan, Muhammad Dawood, Muhammad Kamran, Mona H. Soliman, Muhammad Rizwan, Haifa Abdulaziz S. Alhaithloulf, and Shafaqat Ali 28.1 Introduction 563 28.2 Sources of Nitric Oxide Biosynthesis in Plants 565 28.3 Effects of Nitric Oxide on Plants Under Abiotic Stresses 566 28.4 Role of Calcium Signaling During Abiotic Stresses 571 References 575 29 Iron, Zinc, and Copper Application in Overcoming Environmental Stress 582 Titash Dutta, Nageswara Rao Reddy Neelapu, and Challa Surekha 29.1 Introduction 582 29.2 Iron 586 29.3 Zinc 587 29.4 Copper 588 29.5 Conclusion 590 References 590 30 Role of Selenium and Manganese in Mitigating Oxidative Damages 597 Saket Chandra and Aryadeep Roychoudhury 30.1 Introduction 597 30.2 Factors Augmenting Oxidative Stress 599 30.3 Effects of Heavy Metals on Plants 601 30.4 Role of Manganese (Mn) in Controlling Oxidative Stress 604 30.5 Role of Selenium (Se) in Controlling Oxidative Stress 607 30.6 Role of Antioxidants in Counteracting ROS 608 30.7 Role of Se in Re-establishing Cellular Structure and Function 609 30.8 Conclusion 610 Acknowledgment 611 References 611 31 Role of Silicon Transportation Through Aquaporin Genes for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants 622 Ashwini Talakayala, Srinivas Ankanagari, and Mallikarjuna Garladinne 31.1 Introduction 622 31.2 Aquaporins 623 31.3 Molecular Mechanism of Water and Si Transportation Through Aquaporins 624 31.4 AQP Gating Influx/Outflux 624 31.5 Si-induced AQP Trafficking 627 31.6 Roles of Aquaporins in Plant-Water Relations Under Abiotic Stress 627 31.7 Role of Silicon in Abiotic Stress Tolerance 627 31.8 Si-mediated Drought Tolerance Through Aquaporins 627 31.9 Si-mediated Salinity Tolerance Through Aquaporins 628 31.10 Si-mediated Oxidative Tolerance Through Aquaporins 629 31.11 Si Mediated Signal Transduction Pathway Under Biotic Stress 630 31.12 Conclusion 630 References 630 32 Application of Nanoparticles in Overcoming Different Environmental Stresses 635 Deepesh Bhatt, Megha D. Bhatt, Manoj Nath, Rachana Dudhat, Mayank Sharma, and Deepak Singh Bisht 32.1 Introduction 635 32.2 Physicochemical Properties of Nanoparticles 637 32.3 Mode of Synthesis of Nanoparticles 638 32.4 Types of Nanoparticles and Their Role in Stress Acclimation 639 32.5 Types of Environmental Stresses 646 32.6 Possible Protective Mechanism of Nanoparticles 649 32.7 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 650 References 650 Index 655