Atmospheric Aerosols and Nucleation

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Beschreibung

These proceedings give a rather complete overview of the most recent research in the areas of fundamental processes and phase transitions, cloud droplet and ice nucleation in the atmosphere, and aerosol formation and aerosol characteristics in the atmosphere. Nine review papers on topics of special importance are supplemented by about 200 summaries on topics of greatest current importance. The volume should be of interest to scientists working in the atmospheric and environmental sciences, in chemistry and in physics, as well as to engineers working in these areas.

Inhalt
Binary homogeneous nucleation.- The effect of atmospheric aerosol on the acidity of precipitation.- Gas-particle reactions in a humid atmosphere.- Determination of the sticking probability of H2SO4 ON H2SO4-H2O aerosols.- Experiments on the sticking probability for water molecules during condensation of water vapor in air.- Aerosol formation and distribution in the Arctic during AGASP-II, MarchApril 1986.- Sulfate production in different-sized droplets using an adiabatic parcel model.- Aerosol compositional effects on mountain clouds: Attributing sources of acid deposition.- Characterisation of atmospheric aerosols in the Northern part of Europe.- Fibrous aerosols at higher tropospheric altitudes.- Time-size structure of atmospheric aerosol.- The vertical profile of condensation nuclei on cloudy days.- An optical aerosol climatology.- The use of the log beta distribution to characterize atmospheric aerosols.- Characteristic features of distribution and variation of Atmospheric Aitken Nuclei in mountain regions.- Registration of condensation nuclei and particle concentration 0.3 ? d ? 6 ? m in the atmosphere: Vertical gradient of concentration, washout effects.- Models of size spectrum of tropospheric aerosol.- Experiments on the dynamics of ultrafine aerosol particles.- Modeling of coagulation processes in the atmosphere.- Brownian coagulation of aerosols in free molecular regime.- On the role of aerosol particles spatial fluctuations under coagulation growth.- On the effect of the spectral shape of a source on the steady-state particle distribution of a coagulating aerosol.- Scavenging of aerosol particles by rain and drizzle.- The influence of periodical source on the process of coagulation.- Physical characterization of agglomerated aerosol particles through size-invariant fractal properties.- The use of numerically simulated clusters to evaluate algorithms for fractal dimensionality.- The experimental measurements of clusters formed from soot agglomerates near the sooting limit.- Express-method for presentation of measurement results of high-disperse aerosols parameters by diffusional methods.- The observation of the wet atmospheric aerosol by aeras cascade impactors.- Aspiration of coarse atmospheric aerosols: Selection of sampling devicies and correction of sampling errors.- Density of atmospheric aerosol particles.- Atmospheric aerosols the subject of physico-chemical study.- A nearly complete characterization of the physico-chemical and optical properties of aerosols.- Kinetics of aerosol formation at photolysis of haloidaryl vapours.- On the effect of thermo- and diffusiophoretic capture of hygroscopic aerosol particles onto evaporation of solution droplets.- Condensational growth of some Hygroscopic salt aerosols in standard conditions.- Study of interconnections between some parameters of the atmospheric aerosol composition and the ozone concentration.- Radiation induced aerosol formation in gas mixtures containing S02 and NOx.- Aerosol formation according to specific vapour pressure.- The effect of thermodynamic inhomogeneities on nuclei counting in expansion type counters.- Growth system for ultrafine particles (Principle and preliminary experiments).- A condensation nucleus counter designed for ultrafine particle detection above 3nm diameter.- Measurements of aerosol size distributions with a pocket counter with variable expansion ratio.- An analysis of pressure variation in a condensation nucleus counter during expansion.- A combined DMPS - OPC - sizing - system and its calibration and application for environmental aerosols.- Modern vethods for determining microphysical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols.- Comparative tests of TSI-3030 electric aerosol analyzer and measuring complex of ICK&C, USSR AS.- Multiwavelength lidar measurements of aerosols in the lower atmosphere.- Measurement of integral parameters in the investigations of optical properties of aerosols.- Background particle size distributions over North America.- Effects of El Chichon volcanic effluents on stratospheric aerosol dynamics.- South Pole aerosol measurements during 1987.- Measurements of aerosol size spectra and chemical composition in the Dead sea rift valley.- Examples of the evolution of multimodal aerosol size distributions in midlatitudes and the Arctic.- Relative humidity parameterization of the lognormal size distribution of ambient aerosols.- Observation of condensation on small air ions in the atmosphere.- Evidences of particle formation by homogeneous nucleation over the oceans.- Numerical simulation of the evolution of the particle size distribution in the marine boundary layer.- Production of aerosol at the ocean surface.- Factors affecting concentrations of sea salt particles in the tropical west Pacific area.- Volatility of maritime aerosol.- The liquid water content of a radiation fog by the FSSP 100 optical probe and the aeras jet impaction stage.- Some investigations of tropical aerosol characteristics over western pacific ocean by using forward scattering spectrometer probe.- Recent investigations on marine aerosols.- Physical characteristics of the atmosphere state favouring secondary aerosol formation in the lower troposphere.- Experimental study of the modification process of aerosol particles in the atmospeere.- Trace elements in atmospheric aerosols over Hungary.- The photoelectric aerosol sensor a tool for the in situ detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon coated particles.- Aerosols residence time calculations using bismuth-210/lead-210 activity ratios of atmospheric particulates.- Determination of scatter coefficients due to atmospheric aerosols: A case study.- Statistics of Raman scattered light on aerosol particles and its relation to the chemical properties of the aerosol.- Microscopic and chemical analyses of aerosol and rime samples collected in a mountainous area.- Soot particle scavenging by growing ice crystals.- A theoretical investigation on the washout of aerosol particles by falling ice crystals.- Results of the study of the aerosol concentration in cumulus clouds.- Chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols, their migration and transformation on the example of the Central Asia region.- Spectrometric study of atmospheric particle size and composition.- The seasonal changes of the properties of the aerosols-cosmogenic radionuclides carriers.- Modelling of 210PB, 210BI, 210PO finding forms in aerosols in the ground level air.- Chemical characteristics and source apportionment of aerosols in a coal-consumed city.- On the determination of dispersivity and chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols.- Scaled models for nucleation.- Comparative study of homogeneous nucleation in various tetrachloride vapors.- The homogeneous nucleation of nonane.- Systematic studies of homogeneous nucleation processes; discovery of propensity rules.- Growth processes and homogeneous nucleation in vapour-gas mixtures.- Comparison of models for the composition of binary nuclei.- Measurements of the heteromolecular homogeneous nucleation of partially miscible liquids.- Homogeneous nucleation in binary melt systems.- Experimental study of heteromolecular nucleation in sulphuric acid-water vapour binary system.- Binary nucleation of water-sulphuric acid systems: Comparison of theoretical and experimental results.- Nonclassical nucleation theory of condensation.- Thermodynamic and kinetic model for condensation in finite systems, and its application to experimental results.- Spontaneous nucleation rate, sizes and of critical nuclei in many-component supersaturated vapour.- Gas phase nucleation involving polymers.- Expansion cloud chamber measurements of the gas phase self- initiated thermal polymerization of styrene.- Kinetics of ion induced nucleation.- Magnetic water treatment.- Photoinduced nucleation of nickel carbonyl.- Thermodynamic considerations on the stability of colloidal dispersions with ionizable surface groups like silica sols.- The critical complex in nucleation is not the nucleus.- Size dependence of surface thermodynamic parameters of microclusters and the location of the gibbs' surface of tension.- Effects of size dependent surface tension and temperature on homogeneous nucleation of toluene.- Monte Carlo simulations of small water clusters: Effective surface tension.- Investigations of the formation and the structure of microclusters by direct computer simulation.- Potentialities of molecular model in describing heterogeneous ice crystal nucleation.- Problems associated with ensemble treatment in statistical-mechanical theories of nucleation.- Anharmonictty corrections to the thermodynamic properties of nucleating clusters of Nitrogen molecules.- Thermodynamics of phase transitions of water.- A comprehensive study of nucleation rates: A molecular cluster model approach.- Polycrystallization of water drops freezing on an ice substrate.- The maximum rate of homogeneous ice nucleation in air by cooling.- The ice/water interface: Analysis of molecular trajectories.- Heterogeneous ice crystal nucleation on model nuclei.- Heterogeneous ice nucleation in adsorbed layers. Experiment and theory.- Ice nucleation by AgI solid solutions.- The features of water phase transition under low pressure.- Optical studies of condensation dynamics in a supersonic nozzle.- Homogeneous condensation in transonic flow.- Nucleation and growth rates from shock tube experiments.- Laboratory investigations on reactivity and condensation nuclei properties of coated and uncoated ultrafine particles.- Thermodynamically nonequilibrium heterogeneous nucleation.- Nucleation studies of I-III-VI2 ternary semiconductors during chemical vapour transport.- Cloud condensation nuclei.- On the theory of the initial phase of condensation.- Use of an Isothermal Haze Chamber for studying the conditions of fog formation.- Measurement of CCN with the Thermal Diffusion Tube.- Airborne CCN spectral measurements.- Distribution of salt nuclei near sea shore at Visakhapatnam.- The effects of the spectra, concentration and chemical composition of salt nuclei on the formation of the cloud droplet spectra in cumulus clouds.- On the influence of cetyl alcohol vapour on the condensation processes in the course of cloud formation.- The generation of secondary marine aerosols: The crystallization of seawater droplets.- CCN concentrations and supersaturation spectrum curves observed in a tropical rain forest South of the Sahara.- A parametric study of condensation growth and nucleation scavenging over large fires.- Characterization of combustion aerosol for haze and cloud formation.- Airborne observations of summertime CCN concentration in the middle-lower troposphere over Northern China.- Correlation between fog optical depth and the characteristics of the medium phase function.- Aerosol effects on marine stratocumulus development observed from multispectral satellite measurements.- Influence of physical and chemical properties of aerosols on clouds in mesoscale models.- Effect of nucleation and condensation in a nucleus counter on trace levels of SO2 present in atmospheric air samples.- Ice nuclei of biological origin.- Phase transitions in an adsorbed water layer on aerosol particles.- Theoretical estimations of stimulation by adsorbed ions of supercooled droplets crystallization in clouds.- Phenomenological theory of ice nucleation on particles with inhomogeneous surface and its verification.- Stability of nucleation sites for ice.- Observations of homogeneous-freezing of freely suspended aqueous solution droplets.- Studies of ice nucleation by carbonaceous soot aerosols.- Homogeneous droplet nucleation rates derived from cirrus cloud measurements.- Ice nucleation on aerosol particles op a mixed chemical nature.- Collision-freezing: A new mechanism for ice initiation in warm-based cumuli.- The role of contact nucleation scavenging in the coalescence-freezing mechanism.- X-ray diffraction analysis of aerosols obtained by burning of the AgJ based pyrotechnics.- Comparisons of cloud chamber and cloud model simulations of ice nucleation by silver iodide.- Ice nuclei in atmosphere over Baicheng Prefecture in spring.- Ice forming nuclei concentrations at Palmer Station, Antarctica.- Probability of ice nuccleation on ultrafine particles of silver and silver iodide.- Kinetics of ice crystal formation on aerosol particles in fog.- Studies on the vertical distribution of atmospheric ice nuclei.- The supercooling of the ice sponge-to-water skin interface of gyrating hailstones.- Rapid ice nucleation: Laboratory and field studies of the phenomenon and its importance.- A dynamic processing chamber for ice nuclei filter samples.- The method of measuring the instant freezing nucleus spectrum in a precipitation sample.- Stochastic, ice nucleation on a nonhomogeneous surface.- Ice-forming activity of atmospheric aerosol particles of different sizes.- Ice electronucleation: Laboratory and field evidence in support of a new mechanism of ice nucleation.- The prevention of ice crystal growth from water by antifreeze proteins.- Heterogeneous ice nucleation within emulsions.

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Produktinformationen

Titel
Atmospheric Aerosols and Nucleation
Untertitel
Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Atmospheric Aerosols and Nucleation, Held at the University of Vienna, Austria, August 22-27, 1988
Editor
EAN
9783662159255
ISBN
3662159252
Format
Kartonierter Einband
Herausgeber
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Anzahl Seiten
752
Gewicht
1273g
Größe
H244mm x B170mm x T39mm
Jahr
2014
Untertitel
Englisch
Auflage
Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1988
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