This collection of papers describes the evolutionary path of stars of various masses. Observational data and theoretical modeling of the stellar atmosphere and the stellar interior and their interaction are presented, covering chemical peculiarities, mass loss, and explosion, all of which are strongly related to the hydrodynamic evolution of the interior. In particular the supernova SN 1987 A is discussed for the first time in detail, including the underground neutrino observations and the detection of X-rays from the supernova. The study of its progenitor, a B 3 supergiant, was related to the topics of chemical peculiarities and mass loss mechanisms and atmospheric models. The intended readers are professional astronomers and astrophysicists, as well as physicists. The book will also be an important source of information for graduate students.
Main sequence abundances: Observational aspects.- Main sequence abundances, mass loss and meridional circulation.- Observed lithium abundances as a test of stellar internal structure.- On the distribution of the lithium abundance in normal late-type giants.- Abundances in cool evolved stars.- Chemical peculiarities, mass loss, and final evolution of AGB stars in the magellanic clouds.- Nucleosynthesis and mixing in low- and intermediate-mass AGB stars.- Abundances in J-type carbon stars.- The abundance of oxygen in M92 giants.- A search for galactic carbon stars.- Surface distribution of M stars with different IRAS colour.- SiO isotope emissions from late-type stars.- Detection of water maser emission from a carbon star V778 CYGNI.- Chemical and expansion properties of compact planetary nebulae in the galactic anti-center region.- Helium flashes through the NCO reaction.- Abundances in hot evolved stars.- Evolutionary helium and cno anomalies in the atmospheres and winds of massive hot stars.- The point on the theoretical changes of surface chemistry during massive star evolution.- White dwarf seismology: Inverse problem of g-mode oscillations.- The white dwarf luminosity function and the phase diagram of the carbon-oxygen dense plasma.- Wolf-Rayet stars as a diagnostic of internal mixing processes in massive mass losing stars.- A systematic study of stellar models for c/o-rich Wolf-Rayet stars.- Overabundance of sodium in the atmospheres of massive supergiants as a possible manifestation of NeNa cycle.- Excitation of non-radial oscillations by overstable convection in differentially rotating massive main sequence stars.- Dredge-up by sound wave emission from a convective core.- Stellar mass loss and atmospheric instability.- Winds of hot stars as a diagnostic tool of stellar evolution.- Atmospheric phenomena in ETA carinae and the Hubble-Sandage variables.- Model of dusty envelope of ETA Carinae.- Turbulence-driven atmospheric instability and large-scale motions in super- and hypergiants.- Quantitative spectroscopy of Wolf-Rayet stars.- Analysis of 30 Wolf-Rayet stars.- NLTE analysis of the Wolf-Rayet star HD193077 (WN5+abs).- II-1. Hot stars spectral analysis of the Wolf-Rayet star HD 50896.- Atmospheric diagnostics of Wolf-Rayet stars.- New observational results of of/WN transition types.- The galactic distribution and subtype evolution of Wolf-Rayet stars.- A new driving mechanism of the episodic mass-loss in BE stars.- Stellar wind equations in a new steady state.- Molecular spectroscopy as diagnostics of outer atmosphere of cool luminous stars: quasi-static turbulent molecular formation zone and stellar mass-loss.- Dust driven winds in late supergiants.- Winds from red giants.- Discovery of a reflection dust envelope around IRC+10216.- Distance determination of mass losing carbon stars from CO and HCN radio observations.- A sensitive line search in circumstellar envelopes.- Photospheres of Mira variables.- The V-stokes parameter as a manifestation of envelope activity for cool, bright, evolved stars.- The mixing length ratio, Eddy diffusivity, and acoustic waves.- Intermittent transition to irregular pulsation with mass loss in hydrodynamic models.- A model oscillator of irregular stellar variability.- The structure of a stationary atmosphere with a heat source or sink.- Evolution diagnostics in interacting binaries.- Atmospheric evidence of evolutionary processes in interacting binaries.- W Ursae Majoris star models: Observational constraints.- Mass and energy transfer in semi-detached binary systems.- Empirical determination of the gravity-darkening exponent for the secondary components filling the Roche lobe in semi-detached close binary systems.- Call H and K emission in the secondary component of U Cephei.- Carbon abundance in mass-exchanging binaries.- Photometric and polarimetric observations of the RV Tauri star ar puppis.- Classical Novae before and after outburst.- Spectral peculiarities innova vulpeculae 1984 N° 2.- The chemical composition of the white dwarfs in cataclysmic variable systems which produce novae.- Numerical modelling of the classical nova outburst.- Superoutbursts and superhumps of SU UMA Stars.- Accretion-disk-instability model for outbursts of FU Orionis.- Nonlinear oscillation of the magnetosphere around neutron stars.- Mass ejection during helium shell flashes from a massive white dwarf.- The evolution of the progenitor of SN 1987A.- SN 1987A: Ultraviolet observations and mass loss.- Spectroscopic and photometric observations of SN1987a obtained at SAAO.- SN 1987A: An Australian view.- Enrichment of S-process elements in the progenitor of SN 1987A.- On the origin of supernovae of type Ib.- Model calculations and spectroscopic constrains for SN1987A.- Type II Supernova photospheres and the distance to supernova 1967A.- Spectroscopic diagnosis of SN1987A and lesser lights.- Light curve models for SN 1987A and diagnosis of supernova interior.- Observation of a neutrino burst from the supernova SN1987a.- SN1987a:Calculations versus observations.- Supernova mechanisms: Before and after SN1987a.- SN 1987a: Theoretical considerations.- Calculated late time spectra of Supernovae.- Observing the nucleosynthesis from core collapse supernovae.- X-rays and ?-rays from Supernova 1987a.- X-ray observation of SN1987A from Ginga.- The composite image of sanduleak ?69° 202, candidate precursor to SN 1987A in the LMC.- Evolution of the precursor of SN1987A.- Calculated energy distributions for SN II.- L? radiation and CaII ionization in the type II supernovae at late times.- The effect of general relativity and equation of state on the adiabatic collapse and explosion of a stellar core.- Quasi-static and steady-state pictures for collapsing core of type II supernova.- Analysis of neutrinos from Supernova 1987A.- Analysis of neutrino burst from the supernova in the large Magellanic cloud.- Time profile of the neutrino burst from the supernova 1987A.- SN1987A and constraint on the mass and lifetime of tau neutrinos.- Collapse of the neutron star induced by phase transitions and neutrino emission from SN1987A.- A rotating stellar collapse model for supernova 1987a.- Neutrino emission processes in the Weinberg-Salam theory.- A simple treatment of the problem of radiative transfer in supernova-like envelopes.- The light curve of SN 1987 A.- Nucleosynthesis in exploding massive Wolf-Rayet stars.- Origin of a diffuse galactic emission at 511 keV.- Chemical composition of high-energy cosmic-ray nuclei and its possible origin in type-II supernova.- Hard X-rays and Gamma-rays from SN 1987A.- Thermal radiation from a neutron star in SN 1987A.- Thermal X-rays due to ejecta/CSM interaction in SN 1987A.- An X-ray investigation of Crab-like supernova remnants.- The statistical analysis of Supernovae.- The X-ray spectrum of the Cygnus loop with GSPC.- Radio patrol camera for supernovae search.- Concluding remarks of the I.A.U. colloquium no.108.- Concluding remarks - II.