This textbook presents a comprehensive process-oriented approach to biogeochemistry that is intended to appeal to readers who want to go beyond a general exposure to topics in biogeochemistry, and instead are seeking a holistic understanding of the interplay of biotic and environmental drivers in the cycling of elements in forested watersheds. The book is organized around a core set of ecosystem processes and attributes that collectively help to generate the whole-system structure and function of a terrestrial ecosystem. In the first nine chapters, a conceptual framework is developed based on distinct soil, microbial, plant, atmospheric, hydrologic, and geochemical processes that are integrated in the element cycling behavior of watershed ecosystems. With that conceptual foundation in place, students then proceed to the final three chapters where they are challenged to think critically about integrated element cycling patterns; roles for biogeochemical models; the likely impacts of disturbance, stress, and management on watershed biogeochemistry; and linkages among patterns and processes in watersheds experiencing novel environmental changes. Included with the text are figures, tables of comparative data, extensive literature citations, a glossary of terms, an index, and a set of 24 biogeochemical problems with answers. The problems are intended to support chapter concepts and to demonstrate how critical thinking skills, simple algebra, and thoughtful human logic can be used to solve applied problems in biogeochemistry that might be encountered by a research scientist or a resource manager. Using this book as an introduction to biogeochemistry, students will achieve a level of subject mastery and disciplinary perspective that will permit them to see and to interpret the individual components, interactions, and synergies that are represented in the dynamic element cycling patterns of watershed ecosystems.
Provides a unified emphasis on forested watershed ecosystems that is more process-oriented, comprehensive, and pedagogical than existing single watershed case studies
Delivers a coherent synthesis of biogeochemistry at the watershed ecosystem scale - the most common landscape unit for current research and resource management
Enables students to interpret the individual components, interactions, and synergies represented in the dynamic element cycling patterns
May serve as an operational manual that examines how forested watersheds work with respect to fundamental parts, processes, interrelationships, whole-system behavior, and responses to changing conditionsAutorentext
Dr. Christopher Cronan is a Professor in the School of Biology and Ecology at the University of Maine, Orono, ME. He is the author of a previous introductory textbook entitled Introduction to Ecology and Ecosystems Analysis
, and has published over 70 peer-reviewed scientific articles in journals such as Bioscience, Science, Nature, Water Resources Research, Environmental Science and Technology, Ecological Modelling, Landscape Ecology, Tree Physiology, Biogeochemistry, Analytical Chemistry, Soil Science Society of America Journal, Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, and Environmental Management. He is former director of the School of Biology and Ecology and founding director of the Graduate Program in Ecology and Environmental Science at the University of Maine. The author earned a B.A. in ecology at the University of Pennsylvania and a Ph.D. at Dartmouth College.Inhalt
Preface.- Chapter 1: General Chemical Concepts.- Introduction.- Periodic Table and Element Groups.- Chemical Bonding.- Chemical Reactions, Stoichiometry, and Kinetics.- Equilibrium, Steady-State, and Residence Time.- General Concepts of Organic Chemistry.- Aqueous Solubility and Polarity.- Diffusion and Osmotic Potential.- Freezing Exclusion and Concentration of Solutes.- Defining Dissolved and Particulate Phases.- SI Units and Concentrations.- Ionic Charge Balance.- Stable Isotope Chemistry.- Chapter 2: Soil Biogeochemistry.- Introduction.-Soil Formation and Pedogenesis.- Soil Classification.- Soil Texture and Coarse Fragments.- Soil Moisture.- Mineralogy.- Physical-Chemical Features of Clays and Other Soil Colloids.- Clay Colloids.- Humic Colloids.- Chemical Processes in Soils.- Ion Exchange and Adsorption in Soils.- Soil Ion Exchange Chemistry and Base Saturation.- Acidification.- Complexation.- Leaching.- Dissolution and Precipitation Reactions.- Comparative Analysis of Soil Chemical Properties.- Soil Exchange Chemistry.- Soil Distributions of Aluminum.- Vertical Distributions of Organic Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus in Soils.- Forms of Organic Nitrogen in Soils.- Patterns of Soil Solution Chemistry.- Integrated Processes of Nutrient Supply and Storage in Soils.- Chapter 3: Microbial Biogeochemistry.- Introduction.- Redox Conditions.- Microbial Nitrogen Transformations.- Nitrogen Fixation.- Mineralization or Ammonification.- Nitrogen Immobilization.- Nitrification.- Denitrification.- Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction to Ammonium (DNRA).- Assimilatory Nitrate Reduction.- Microbial Sulfur Transformations.- Mineralization of Organic Sulfur.- Anaerobic Dissimilatory Sulfate Reduction.- Assimilatory Sulfate Reduction.- Microbial Carbon Transformations.- Fermentation.- Methane Production.- Organic Acid Synthesis by Microbes.- Microbial Processes that Contribute to Bioremediation or Metal Transformations.- Chapter 4: Plant Biogeochemistry.- Introduction.- General Plant Chemistry.- Plant Functional Morphology and Growth Allocation.- Aboveground Structure and Function.- Belowground Structure and Function of the Root System.- Growth Allocation and Root:Shoot Relationships.- Carbon Fixation, Metabolism, and Plant Production.- Photosynthesis and Nutrients.- Photosynthesis and Water.- Respiration and Metabolism.- Exchange of Carbon Dioxide in a Forest Ecosystem.- Energy Budgets and Primary Production.- Whole-Plant Carbon Cycling and Allocation.- Metabolic Allocation to Plant Defense.- Plant Nutrient Cycling.- Plant Nutrient Absorption.- Implications of Nutrient Uptake for Acid-Base Chemistry.- Plant Transport or Translocation of Nutrients.- Plant Nutrient Resorption.- Detrital Cycling of Plant Nutrients.- Plant Canopy Processes Affecting Element Cycling.- NUE as an Index of Plant Nutrition and Nutrient Cycling.- Nutrient Limitation.- Effects of Chemical Stress on Plants.- Effects of Acidic Deposition on Plant Membrane-Bound Calcium.- Aluminum Antagonism and Toxicity Stress.- Plant Responses to Ozone Stress.- Chapter 5: Cycling of Organic Matter.- Introduction.- Ecosystem Perspective.- Storage of Organic Matter in Forest Soils, Biomass, and Woody Debris.- Soil Organic Matter and Soil Carbon Storage.- Forest Floor Storage.- Turnover Rates and Age of Soil Organic Matter Reservoirs.- Influence of Land Management and Disturbance on SOM.- Aboveground and Belowground Biomass.- Coarse Woody Debris.- Transfers of Organic Matter in Detritus and Solutions.- Aboveground Litterfall.- Belowground Detrital Inputs from Root Mortality and Turnover.- Solution Transfers of DOM.- Decomposition of Organic Matter.- General Processes of Decomposition.- Wood Decay Processes.- Decomposition Rates and Decay Constants.- Element Cycling Patterns in Decaying Organic Matter.- Substrate Controls on Decomposition.- Environmental Controls on Decomposition.- Biological Influences on Decomposition.- Transfers of CO2 in the Organic Matter Budget of a Forest Ecosystem.- Chapter 6: Atmospheric Deposition.- Introduction.- Atmospheric Chemistry.- Deposition Processes and Patterns.- Atmospheric Emissions and Deposition of Sulfur and Nitrogen.- Measurement and Analysis of Atmospheric Deposition.- Wet Deposition.- Dry Deposition.- Environmental Patterns of Precipitation Chemistry and Atmospheric Deposition.- Daily Patterns.- Monthly Patterns.- Multi-year Trends in Precipitation Chemistry.- Long-term Historical Trends in Atmospheric Deposition of Mercury.- Spatial Patterns - Deposition in North America.- Influence of Vegetation and Canopy Structure on Atmospheric Deposition.- Comparison of Atmospheric Deposition at Different Forest Sites.- Modeling Atmospheric Deposition Patterns.- A Case Study of Deposition Inputs to a Forest Ecosystem.- Chapter 7: Mineral Weathering.- Introduction.- Ecosystem Context.- Mineral Weathering Processes.- Heterogeneous Mineral Weathering at Different Scales.- Controls on Mineral Weathering Rates.- Mineralogical Controls.- Influence of Acidity and Complexing Ligands on Weathering Rates.- Experimental Effects of Acidity on Weathering Rates.- Physical Influences on Weathering Rates.- Biotic Influences on Mineral Weathering Rates.- Influence of Mineral Dissolution on the Solution Chemistry of Natural Waters.- Genesis and Weathering of Clays.- Methods of Estimating Weathering Contributions to Ecosystem Element Budgets.- Mass Balance Estimation.- Element Tracers as Indicators of Weathering Rates.- Weathering Estimation with Mineral Depletion Techniques.- Comparison of Weathering Estimates.- Comparison of Weathering in Different Ecosystems.- Chapter 8: Watershed Hydrology.- Ecosystem and Landscape Perspectives.-Influence of Geologic and Soil Conditions on Storage and Movement of Water.- Soil Hydrologic Properties.- Water Movement and Streamflow Generation in a Watershed Ecosystem.- Inferring Stream Hydrology from Stream Chemistry in Small Watersheds.- Water Balance of a Watershed Ecosystem.- Measurement Techniques for Ecosystem Water Budgets.- Components of a Water Budget - Precipitation Inputs.- Components of a Water Budget - Evapotranspiration (ET).- Components of a Water Budget - Hydrologic Storage.- Components of a Water Budget - Stream Runoff.- Integrated Analysis of a Water Budget.- Chapter 9: Aqueous Chemistry.- Introduction.- An Example of Soil Solution Chemistry Analysis and Interpretation.- General Concepts of Aqueous Chemistry.- Sample Collection and Analysis.- Selection of Analytical Parameters.- Alkalinity or Acid Neutralizing Capacity (ANC).- Acidity and pH.- Conductivity.- Ionic Strength and Ion Activity.- Influence of Temperature on Solution Equilibria.- Hydrolysis and Chemical Speciation as a Function of pH.- Rate-limited Versus Equilibrium Conditions.- Differential Anion Mobility.- Effects of Ecosystem Processes on Solution Chemistry.- Case Studies Analysis and Interpretation of Aqueous Chemistry in Natural Waters.- Controls on the Chemistry of Forest Floor Leachates.- Comparison of Stream Chemistry Along a Hydrologic Flow Gradient.- Solution Chemistry and ANC Generation Along Two Watershed Drainage Gradients.- Effects of Land Use on Watershed Exports of Nutrients in Stream Runoff.- Chapter 10: Integrated Element Cycling.- Introduction.- General Concepts of Element Cycling.- Terminology.- Comparison of Element Cycles in Terrestrial Ecosystems.- Nitrogen Cycle.- Calcium Cycle.- Aluminum Cycle.- Nutrient Cycling in Relation to Ecosystem Succession.- Chemical Input-Output Budgets for Watershed Ecosystems.- Element Cycling at the Landscape Scale: Exports of N and P from Large Watersheds.- Element Cycling at the Global Scale.- Global Nitrogen Cycle.- Global Carbon Cycle.- Chapter 11: Biogeochemical Modeling.- Introduction.- Considerations in the Development of a Biogeochemical Model.- Steps in Building a Biogeochemical Model.- An Introductory Model of Watershed Nitrogen Cycling.- Applications of Biogeochemical Models.- TREGRO A Model to Simulate Plant Responses to Interacting Stresses.- TEM: A Global Model of Net Primary Productivity.- The CENTURY Soil Organic Matter Model.- PnET-BGC An Integrated Biogeochemical Model.- Watershed Acidification Models.- Nutrient Cycling Models.- Models in Watershed Hydrology.- Chapter 12: Ecosystem Disturbance and Stress.- Introduction.- Disturbance and Recovery in the Context of Ecological Succession.- Effects of Deforestation and Harvesting on Forest Ecosystems.- Twenty Years of Recovery after Forest Harvesting.- Effects of Wildfire and Prescribed Burning.- Wildfires.- Prescribed Burning as a Management Practice.- Effects of Forest Fire Smoke on Radiative Forcing.- Disturbance and Stress Resulting from Chronic N Inputs to Forest Ecosystems.- Biogeochemical Implications of Rising Atmospheric CO2 and Climate Change.- Epilogue.- Appendix: Problem Sets in Biogeochemistry.- Glossary.- Index .