Clusters of Atoms and Molecules II

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Cluster science studies the transition from atomic, and molecular physics or chemistry to the science and technology of condensed matter. Two main topics from this large field will be emphasized in this second volume of Atomic and Molecular Clusters. After an Introduction, Chap. 2 deals mainly with molecular clusters, how they react to positive or negative charges (Sect. 2.1 to 2.5), how they decompose and how they can be charged (Sect. 2.6 and 2.7), and how one can do chemistry with them (2.8 and 2.9). Clusters in contact with a macroscopic medium are treated in Chap. 3. It is from this domain that one can expect possible new applications of cluster science. The optical spectra of silver clusters in a dielectric medium are discussed in Sect. 3.1. Their properties have since long been used unknowingly to stain glass windows. Large clusters floating in an ambient pressure gas are called aerosols (Sect. 3.2). Their properties can be used to monitor air pollution. Development of a photographic film is due to supported silver clusters in a liquid environment (Sect. 3.3). Large semiconductor clusters, also called "quantum dots", have novel optical and electronic properties (Sect. 3.4). The optical properties of large clusters, in general, are reviewed in Sect. 3.5, and properties of clusters supported on clean surfaces are discussed in Sect. 3.6.

Clusters of Atoms and Molecules deals with the physics and chemistry of clusters and small particles. It is the first book on this subject and provides an overview of the entire field from solid state physics, to physical chemistry and technology. Each chapter is written by an expert in the field. The authors laid emphasis on a simple introduction readily understandable to undergraduates, and then continuously develop towards more advanced topics, ending with the latest results in this rapidly developing field.


Clusters of Atoms and Molecules is devoted to physical, chemical, and technological problems of clusters and small particles. In the first part the solvation, charging, and chemistry of free clusters in vacuum is studied, while the second part describes clusters deposited on surfaces, or embedded in gases, liquids or solids. Several technological applications, such as catalysis, photography, coloured glasses, quantum dots, and nanocrystalline materials are discussed. Each contribution is written so as to be easily understandable for newcomers and concludes with the latest results.

1 Introduction.- 1.1 Historical Application of Metal Clusters.- 1.2 Outlook.- Reference.- 2 Solvation, Chemistry, and Charging of Free Clusters.- 2.1 Solvated Atoms in Polar Solvents.- 2.1.1 Introduction.- 2.1.2 Experimental.- 2.1.3 Ionisation Potentials.- 2.1.4 Further Spectroscopic Studies.- References.- 2.2 IR Spectroscopy of Solvated Molecules.- 2.2.1 Introduction.- 2.2.2 Solvation Studies.- 2.2.3 Computer Simulations.- 2.2.4 Complex Forming Reactions on the Surface and in the Interior of a Cluster.- 2.2.5 Recent Experimental Results.- References.- 2.3 IR Spectroscopy of Hydrogen Bonded Charged Clusters.- 2.3.1 General Background and Motivation.- 2.3.2 Some Previous Studies.- 2.3.3 Consequence Spectroscopy of Charged Clusters.- 2.3.4 Basic Principles of the Experiment.- 2.3.5 Typical Results and Interpretations.- 2.3.6 Concluding Remarks.- References.- 2.4 Solvated Cluster Ions.- 2.4.1 Introduction.- 2.4.2 Experimental Techniques.- 2.4.3 Reactions Influenced by Solvation.- 2.4.4 Solvation Phenomena.- 2.4.5 Photodissociation Experiments of Solvated Cluster Ions.- 2.4.6 Recent Developments.- References.- 2.5 Solvated Electron Clusters.- 2.5.1 Introduction.- 2.5.2 Case Studies.- 2.5.3 Outlook.- 2.5.4 Recent Developments.- References.- 2.6 Internal Reactions and Metastable Dissociations after Ionization of van der Waals Clusters.- 2.6.1 Introduction.- 2.6.2 Ionization Mechanisms and Processes.- 2.6.3 Ionization Efficiency.- 2.6.4 Post Collision Internal Reactions.- 2.6.5 Metastable Dissociations.- 2.6.6 Recent Developments.- References.- 2.7 Multiply Charged Clusters.- 2.7.1 Introduction.- 2.7.2 Formation of Multiply Charged Clusters.- 2.7.3 Stability and Fragmentation of Multiply Charged Clusters.- 2.7.4 Outlook.- 2.7.5 Recent Developments.- References.- 2.8 Chemistry with Neutral Metal Clusters.- 2.8.1 Introduction Clusters and Heterogeneous Catalysis.- 2.8.2 Experimental.- 2.8.3 Adsorbate Uptake The Path to Coverage.- 2.8.4 Kinetics Strong Cluster Size Dependence and the Approach to Bulk.- 2.8.5 Equilibrium The Thermodynamics of Adsorbate Binding.- 2.8.6 Saturated Compositions The Number and Nature of Adsorption Sites.- 2.8.7 Chemical Probes of Metal Cluster Structure.- 2.8.8 Chemistry on Clusters Adsorbate Decomposition.- 2.8.9 Future Prospects.- 2.8.10 Recent Developments.- References.- 2.9 Chemistry with Cluster Ions.- 2.9.1 Introduction.- 2.9.2 Experimental Methods.- 2.9.3 Comparison of Ion and Neutral Cluster Reactivity.- 2.9.4 Boron Cluster Ions: A Case Study with Ion Beams.- 2.9.5 Chemistry Studies with ICR Methods.- 2.9.6 Chemical Identification of Isomers.- 2.9.7 Future Directions.- 2.9.8 Recent Developments.- References.- 3 Embedded, Supported, and Compressed Clusters.- 3.1 Optical Properties of Silver Clusters in Dielectric Matrices.- 3.1.1 Introduction.- 3.1.2 Optical Absorption of Colloids.- 3.1.3 Size Effect and the Influence of the Matrix.- References.- 3.2 Aerosols, Large Clusters in Gas Suspensions.- 3.2.1 Introduction.- 3.2.2 Some Tools of Aerosol Science.- 3.2.3 Diffusion Charging of Particles.- 3.2.4 Photoelectric Charging of Particles.- 3.2.5 The Photoelectric Yield of Small Metals Particles.- 3.2.6 Adsorption of Gas Molecules at the Surface of Particles.- 3.2.7 Applications of Photoelectron Emission from Particles..- 3.2.8 X-Ray Absorption of Particles.- 3.2.9 Conclusions.- 3.2.10 Recent Developments.- References.- 3.3 Metal Clusters in a Liquid Environment Photographic Development.- 3.3.1 Introduction.- 3.3.2 Synthesis.- 3.3.3 Physical Properties.- 3.3.4 Chemical Properties.- 3.3.5 Photographic Development.- 3.3.6 Conclusion.- 3.3.7 Recent Developments.- References.- 3.4 Larger Semiconductor Clusters (Quantum Dots).- 3.4.1 Introduction.- 3.4.2 Elementary Theory.- 3.4.3 Summary.- References.- 3.5 Electromagnetic Excitations of Large Clusters.- 3.5.1 Introduction.- 3.5.2 Extinction of Radiation by Single Particles.- 3.5.3 Discussion of Optical Properties of Isolated Clusters.- 3.5.4 Intrinsic Optical Cluster Size Effects.- 3.5.5 Optical Properties of Cluster Matter.- 3.5.6 Appendix: Computer Program of the Mie Theory.- References.- 3.6 Supported Clusters.- 3.6.1 Introduction.- 3.6.2 Preparation of Supported Clusters.- 3.6.3 Cluster Growth.- 3.6.4 Band Structure of Clusters.- 3.6.5 Core Electron Spectra.- 3.6.6 Other Types of Measurement.- 3.6.7 Metal-Insulator Transition.- 3.6.8 Prospects for the Future.- 3.6.9 Conclusion.- References.- 3.7 Nanocrystalline Materials.- 3.7.1 Introduction.- 3.7.2 Basic Ideas.- 3.7.3 Preparation and Characterization.- 3.7.4 Structural Studies.- 3.7.5 Properties.- 3.7.6 Multiphase Nanocrystalline Materials.- 3.7.7 Prospects.- References.- Subject Index of Volume 52.

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Clusters of Atoms and Molecules II
Solvation and Chemistry of Free Clusters, and Embedded, Supported and Compressed Clusters
Kartonierter Einband
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Anzahl Seiten
H235mm x B155mm x T23mm
Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1994
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