Plant Physiology

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In recent years, molecular biology has infiltrated into all branches of botany. This is particularly true of plant physiology. This book attempts to provide an introduction to the metabolic and developmental physiology of higher plants from a molecular biological point of view. Starting from the heterocatalytic function of DNA the first ten chapters deal with metabolism; development is presented in the last nine, starting from the autocatalytic functions of DNA and including certain topics oriented more toward metabolic physiology. Both fields of plant physiology are so closely linked that an in tegrated presen tation of this kind seemed not only possible but desirable. In contrast to other accounts, an attempt has been made to give equal weight to metabolism and development. In particular, the so-called "sec ondary" plant materials, which are of considerable interest to the phar macist, the nutrition technologist, the plant breeder, and the agriculturalist, as well as to the biologist, are treated sufficiently. It is ob vious that the wealth of material made an illustrative style of presentation necessary. The book is intended for beginners, and so it has had, in part, to be simplified. Even so it has not been possible to write it without mentioning hypotheses that anticipate much more research. The beginner ought also to learn how working hypotheses are first postulated on the basis of cer tain facts and then must either be proved or refuted.

Control of Character Formation by Nucleic Acids.- A. The Chemical Constitution of the Nucleic Acids.- 1. The Building Blocks of the Nucleic Acids.- 2. Nucleosides, Nucleotides, Polynucleotides.- 3. The Watson-Crick Model of DNA.- B. Direct Evidence for the Role of the Nucleic Acids as Carriers of Genetic Information.- 1. Transformation.- 2. Transfection.- C TheHeterocatalytic Function of DNA: Transcription and Translation.- 1. The Concept of Molecular Genetics.- 2. The Genetic Code.- 3. Transcription.- 4. Translation.- 5. Antimetabolites of Transcription and Translation.- 6. Evidence for mRNA in Higher Plants.- 7. Transcription and Translation in a Cell-Free System.- 8. One Gene-One Polypeptide.- Photosynthesis.- A. Division °f PhotoSynthesis into Primary and Secondary Processes.- B. Primary Processes of Photosynthesis.- 1. Electron Transport Chains.- 2. Redox Systems in the Primary Processes of Photosynthesis.- 3. Pigment Systems I and II of Photosynthesis.- 4. Primary Processes of Photosynthesis.- 5. Quantum Yield of Photosynthesis.- C. Secondary Processes of Photosynthesis.- 1. The CO2 Acceptor.- 2. The Connection with the Primary Processes.- 3. The Calvin Cycle.- 4. The CO4 dicarboxylic Acid Pathway.- D. The Chloroplast: Site of Photosynthesis.- Carbohydrates.- A. Monosaccharides.- 1. Phosphorylation (Kinases).- 2. Intramolecular Migration of Phosphate (Mutases).- 3. Sugar Nucleotides (UDPG).- 4. Inversion of an OH Group (Epimerases).- 5. Control of the Equilibrium Between Aldoses and Ketoses (Isomerases).- 6. Oxidative Degradation of 1 C Atom (Hexose-pentose Transition).- 7. The Pentose Phosphate Cycle.- B. Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides.- 1. Glycosides.- 2. Oligosaccharides.- 3. Polysaccharides.- Biological Oxidation.- A. Glycosis.- B. Oxidative Decarboxylstion of Pyruvate, Formation of Active Acetate.- C. Citric Acid Cycle.- D. The Respiratory Chain.- E. Mitochondria as Power Plants.- Fats.- A. Chemical Constitution of the Fatty Acids.- B. Biosynthesis of the Fatty Acids.- 1. Formation of Malonyl CoA.- 2. Fatty Acid Synthesis Proper.- C. Biosynthesis of the Neutral Fats.- D. Degradation of the Fats.- 1. ?-Oxidation.- 2. ?-Oxidation.- E. The Glyoxylate Cycle.- Terpenoids.- A. Chemical Constitution.- B. Secondary Plant Substances.- C. Volatile Oils.- D. Biosynthesis (General).- E. Biosynthesis (Particular).- 1. Monoterpenes.- 2. Sesquiterpenes.- 3. Triterpenes.- 4. Diterpenes.- 5. Tetraterpenes: Carotenoids.- 6. Polyterpenes.- Phenols.- A. Chemical Constitution.- B. Biosynthesis (General).- 1. The Shikimic Acid Pathway.- 2. The Acetate-Malonate Pathway.- 3. Precursors and Intermediates.- C. Biosynthesis (Particular).- 1. Cinnamic Acids.- 2. Coumarins.- 3. Lignin.- 4. Phenol Carboxylic Acids and Simple Phenols.- 5. Flavan Derivatives.- 6. Flower Pigmentation.- Amino Acids.- A. The Reduction of Nitrogen.- B. Reductive Amination.- C The Formation of Glutamine.- D. Transamination.- E. The Origin of the C Skeleton of the Amino Acids.- Alkaloids.- A. Derivatives of the Aliphatic Amino Acids, Ornithine and Lysine.- 1. Quinolizidine Alkaloids.- 2. Nicotiana Alkaloids and Nicotinic Acid.- 3. Tropane Alkaloids.- B. Derivatives of the Aromatic Amino Acids, Phenlalanine and Tyrosine.- 1. Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids and Colchicine.- 2. Betacyanins and Betaxanthins.- 3. Isoquinoline Alkaloids (Benzylisoquinoline Alkaloids).- C. Derivative of the Amino Acid Tryptophan: Indole Alkaloids and Derivatives.- D. Purine Alkaloids.- E. Biochemical Systematics.- Porphyrins.- Cell Division.- A. DevelopmentGrowth and Differentiation.- B. Cell Division.- 1. The Mitotic Cycle.- 2. The Autocatalytic Function of DNA: Replication.- 3. Plant Tumors: Crown Galls.- Differential Gene Activity as Principle of Differentiation.- A. Totipotency.- B. Differential Gene Activity: The Phenomenon.- 1. RNA Synthesis on Giant Chromosomes.- 2. Phase-specific mRNA.- 3. Phase-and Tissue-specific Protein Patterns.- Regulation.- A. States of Activity of the Gene.- B. Regulation: Point of Departure.- C. Regulation by Internal Factors.- 1. Intracellular Regulation.- 2. Intercellular Regulation: Phytohormones.- D. Regulation by External Factors.- 1. Temperature.- 2. Light.- Polarity and Unequal Cell Division as Fundamentals of Differentiation.- A. Polarity.- B. Unequal Cell Division.- 1. Development of Stomata.- 2. Root Hair Formation.- 3. Pollen Mitosis.- Cell Elongation.- A. The Phenomenon.- B. The Process of Elongation Within a Cell.- 1. The Suction Pressure Equation of the Cell.- 2. The Stages of Cell Elongation.- C. Regulation.- 1. Adjustment of the Equilibrium Between Division and Elongation.- 2. Regulation by IAA.- The Formation of Seeds and Fruits.- A. Complex Developmental Processes and Their Regulation.- B. Formation of Seeds and Fruit.- 1. The Process of Formation.- 2. Regulation.- Germination.- A. Dormancy.- 1. Incomplete Embryos.- 2. Maturation by Drying.- 3. Impermeability to Water and/or Gases.- 4. Inhibitors.- B. Conditions for Germination.- 1. Water.- 2. Oxygen.- 3. Temperature.- 4. Light.- C. Mobilization of Reserve Materials.- D. Assembly of the Photosynthetic Apparatus.- E. Regulation of Germination by Photohormones.- F. Regulation of Germination and Evolution.- The Vascular System.- A. The Elements.- B. Differentiation.- C. Function.- 1. Transport in Both Directions.- 2. Transport of the Xylem.- 3. Transport in the Phloem.- Flower Formation.- A. Definitions.- B. Temperature and Flower Induction: Vernalization.- 1. Petkus Rye.- 2. Henbane (Hyoscyamus Niger).- 3. Streptocarpus Wendlandii.- 4. A Hypothesis Concerning Vernalization.- C. Length of Day and Flower Induction: Photoperiodism.- 1. Long and Short Day Plants, Neutral Day Plants.- 2. Analysis of Photoperiodism in Flower Induction.- 3. Photoperiodism in Flower Induction as a Sign of Adaptation.- 4. Light and Circadian Rhythms.- Sources of Illustration.

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Plant Physiology
Molecular, Biochemical, and Physiological Fundamentals of Metabolism and development
Kartonierter Einband
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Anzahl Seiten
H229mm x B152mm x T18mm
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