Metal Pollution in the Aquatic Environment

(0) Erste Bewertung abgeben
CHF 179.00
Print on Demand - Auslieferung erfolgt in der Regel innert 4 bis 6 Wochen.
Kartonierter Einband


Aquatic chemistry is becoming both a rewarding and substantial area of inquiry and is drawing many prominent scientists to its fold. Its literature has changed from a compilation of compositional tables to studies of the chemical reactions occurring within the aquatic environments. But more than this is the recognition that human society in part is determining the nature of aquatic systems. Since rivers deliver to the world ocean most of its dissolved and particulate components, the interactions of these two sets of waters determine the vitality of our coastal waters. This significant vol ume provides not only an introduction to the dynamics of aquatic chem istries but also identifies those materials that jeopardize the resources of both the marine and fluvial domains. Its very title provides its emphasis but clearly not its breadth in considering natural processes. The book will be of great value to those environmental scientists who are dedicated to keeping the resources of the hydrosphere renewable. As the size of the world population becomes larger in the near future and as the uses of materials and energy show parallel increases, the rivers and oceans must be considered as a resource to accept some of the wastes of society. The ability of these waters and the sediments below them to accommodate wastes must be assessed continually. The key questions relate to the capacities of aqueous systems to carry one or more pollutants.

A Introduction.- 1 Environmental Pollution.- 2 Sources, Pathways and Reservoirs.- 3 Aquatic Ecosystems.- B Toxic Metals.- 1 Metals.- 1.1 Classification of the Elements.- 1.2 Classification of Metals.- 1.3 Trace Metal Species in Aquatic Systems.- 2 Trace Metals and Organic Life.- 2.1 Trace Elements Essential to Human Life.- 2.2 Deficiency and Oversupply.- 2.3 Metal Toxicity.- 2.4 Health Hazard Due to Certain Trace Elements.- 2.5 Accumulation of Toxic Substances in the Aquatic Food Chain.- 2.6 Catastrophic Episodes of Metal Poisonings.- 2.6.1 Mercury Poisoning.- 2.6.2 Cadmium Poisoning.- 2.6.3 Lead Poisoning.- 2.6.4 Chromium Poisoning.- 2.6.5 Arsenic Poisoning.- 2.7 Recent Studies on Metal Intoxication.- 3 Water Quality Criteria: Standards.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Criteria Development.- 3.3 Water Quality Criteria.- 4 The Sources of Metal Pollution.- 4.1 Geologic Weathering.- 4.2 Mining Effluents.- 4.3 Industrial Effluents.- 4.4 Domestic Effluents and Urban Stormwater Runoff.- 4.4.1 Domestic Effluents.- 4.4.2 Urban Storm Water Runoff.- 4.4.3 Spoil Heaps.- 4.5 Metal Inputs from Rural Areas.- 4.6 Atmospheric Sources.- 4.7 Special Sources.- 4.8 Multi-Source Effects.- 5 Metal Analysis.- 5.1 Media of Pollution Assessment.- 5.2 Sampling and Analytic Methods.- 5.2.1 Sampling.- 5.2.2 Analytic Methods.- C Metal Concentrations in River, Lake, and Ocean Waters.- 1 Distribution of Major Ions.- 1.1 Natural Salt Concentrations.- 1.2 Man-Made Contamination.- 2 Chemical Conditions for Trace Metals in Natural Waters.- 2.1 Chemical Speciation in Freshwater and Seawater.- 2.1.1 Analysis of Trace Metal Speciation.- 2.1.2 Freshwater/Seawater Model.- 2.2 Redox Conditions in Natural Waters.- 3 Trace Metals in Seawater.- 3.1 Natural Distribution.- 3.2 Man-Made Effects.- 3.2.1 Atmospheric Input of Metals.- 3.2.2 Metal Input from Sewage Effluents.- 4 Trace Metals in Inland Waters.- 4.1 Natural Contents.- 4.2 Metal Pollution in River Water: Regional Examples.- 4.2.1 Heavy Metal Pollution in United States Water Systems.- 4.2.2 Metal Pollution in Inland and Coastal Waters of Great Britain.- 4.2.3 Heavy Metals in River Water of the Federal Republic of Germany.- 4.2.4 Metals in Waters of the People's Republic of China.- 4.2.5 Heavy Metals in River Water of the U.S.S.R.- 4.2.6 Heavy Metals in Waters of Japan.- 4.3 Metal Transport in Freshwater Systems.- 4.3.1 Water Discharge and Metal Transport.- 4.3.2 Annual Cycles of Metal Transport.- D Metal Pollution Assessment from Sediment Analysis.- 1 Introduction.- 1.1 Soluble/Solid Equilibrium.- 1.2 Surface Samples and Sediment Cores.- 2 Metal Investigations on Aquatic Sediments.- 2.1 Sampling and Storage.- 2.1.1 Soils and Sediments.- 2.1.2 Grab and Sore Samplers.- 2.1.3 Bottom Sediment Traps.- 2.1.4 Suspended Materials.- 2.1.5 Recovery of Pore Waters.- 2.1.6 Storage.- 2.2 The Mechanical Sediment Analysis.- 2.3 Mineralogical Analysis.- 2.4 Chemical Analysis of Nutrient Components (CNP).- 2.4.1 Determinations of Oxidizable Matter (Organic Carbon) by the Chromic Acid Method.- 2.4.2 Determination of Kjeldahl Nitrogen.- 2.4.3 Determination of Total Phosphorus.- 2.5 Sediment Digestion in Metal Analysis.- 2.5.1 Hydrofluoric Acid Decomposition.- 2.5.2 Hydrochloric-Nitric Acid (Aqua Regia) Decomposition or Digestion by Nitric Acid.- 2.5.3 Lithium Metaborate Fusion (with Simultaneous Determination of Silica).- 2.5.4 Transfer of Solid Suspensions into Graphite Cuvettes.- 3 Geochemical Reconnaissance of Aquatic Sediments.- 4 Grain-Size Effects.- 4.1 Grain-Size Dependencies of Trace Metal Concentrations.- 4.2 Reduction of Grain-Size Effects.- 4.2.1 Extrapolation from Grain-Size Distribution.- 4.2.2 Metal Concentrations vs Surface Area.- 4.2.3 Separation of Clay/Silt and Fine Sand Fractions by Sieving.- 4.2.4 Separation of the Pelitic Fraction (< 2 ?m) in Settling Tubes.- 4.2.5 Treatment with Dilute Acids (Hydrochloric Acid, Nitric Acid).- 4.2.6 Mineral Separation: Quartz Correction Method.- 4.2.7 Comparison with Conservative Elements.- 4.2.8 The Relative Atomic Variations of Elements.- 5 Factors Controlling the Distribution of Metals in Aquatic Sediments.- 6 Natural Metal ContentCivilizational Accumulation.- 6.1 Average Shale: Global Standard Value.- 6.2 Fossil Lake Sediments: Standards Regarding Environmental Data.- 6.3 Fossil Fluviatile Deposits: Regional Influences.- 6.4 Short, Dated Sediment Cores: 200 Years of Industrial Development.- 6.5 Recent Lake Deposits in Relatively Unpolluted Areas.- 6.6 Metals in Suspended Matter: Background Values in Storm Water.- 6.7 Background Values and Nonpoint Sources.- 7 Lake Sediments as Indicators of Heavy Metal Pollution.- 7.1 Interference: Geochemical Background and Man's Impact.- 7.2 Metal Pollution in Lake Sediments (Examples).- 7.3 Metal Contamination Recorded in Dated Sedimentary Cores.- 7.4 Mercury Poisoning of Lakes.- 7.4.1 Sources of Mercury Pollution.- 7.4.2 Swedish Lakes.- 7.4.3 Canadian Lakes: Clay Lake.- 7.4.4 Laurentian Great Lakes.- 8 Metal Pollution in River Sediments.- 8.1 Geochemical Reconnaissance of Mercury.- 8.2 Stream Sediments: a Response to Environmental Contamination.- 8.3 Heavy Metal Enrichment of River Sediments by Man-Made Influences.- 9 Assessing Metal Pollution in the Sea by Sediment Study.- 9.1 Mercury ContaminationForms of Metal Enrichment in Coastal Sediments.- 9.1.1 MinamataIndustrial Metal Contamination in Japanese Coastal Waters.- 9.1.2 Firth of ClydeSewage Sludge Disposal.- 9.1.3 Southern Californian CoastSewer Outfalls and Atmospheric Influences.- 9.1.4 New HavenUnregulated Effluent Discharge.- 9.2 Marine Waste Deposits in the New York Metropolitan Region.- 9.3 Industrial Effluents in New Bedford Harbor, Mass.- 9.4 Heavy Metal Enrichment in the North Sea, Baltic Sea, and Mediterranean Sea.- 9.4.1 Metal Pollution in the Mediterranean Sea.- 9.4.2 Metal Pollution in the North Sea.- 9.4.3 Metal Contamination of the Baltic Sea.- 9.4.4 Other Restricted BasinsFjords.- 9.5 Heavy Metal in Estuarine Sediments.- 9.5.1 The Estuarine Environment.- 9.5.2 The Rhine Estuary.- 9.5.3 The Elbe Estuary.- 9.5.4 Mixing Processes.- E Metal Transfer Between Solid and Aqueous Phases.- 1 Residence Times of Metals in Aquatic Systems.- 2 Types of Metal Association in Sediments.- 2.1 Classification of Chemical Phases in Sediment.- 2.2 Heavy Metals in Detrital Minerals.- 2.3 Heavy Metal Precipitation.- 2.3.1 Hydroxides.- 2.3.2 Sulfides.- 2.3.3 Carbonates.- 2.4 Cation Exchange and Adsorption.- 2.5 Sorption onto Clay Minerals.- 2.6 Sorption and Coprecipitation on Hydrous Fe/Mn-Oxides and Fe-Sulfides.- 2.6.1 Formation of Hydrous Mn and Fe Oxides.- 2.6.2 Sorption of Heavy Metals onto Fe/Mn Oxides.- 2.6.3 Coprecipitation of Trace Elements with Iron Sulfides.- 2.7 Metal Associations with Organic Substances.- 2.7.1 Organic Substances in Natural Waters.- 2.7.2 Sorption and Complexation of Metals by Humic Substances.- 2.7.3 Coagulation and Flocculation of Metal-Organic Matter.- 2.7.4 Associations of Metal-Organic Compounds to Sediments.- 2.8 Sorption of Trace Elements on Carbonates and Phosphates.- 3 Metal Accumulation in Aquatic SedimentsInteractions and Effects of Various Processes and Sinks.- 3.1 Hydroxidic Coatings on Clay Minerals.- 3.2 Organic Coatings on Clay Minerals.- 3.3 Interactions Between Hydrous Metal Oxides, Organic Substances, Carbonate, and Phosphate.- 3.4 Significance of the Different Sinks in Natural Systems.- 3.5 Non-Conservative Effects of Trace Metals in Estuaries.- 4 Determination of Chemical Phases in Natural and Polluted Sediments.- 4.1 Proportion of the Individual Types of Metal Associations in Natural and Polluted Aquatic Sediments.- 4.2 Grain Size and Chronological Variations; Phase Concentration Factor.- 5 Mobilization of Heavy Metals from Sediments.- 5.1 Saltwater/Sediment Interactions.- 5.1.1 Desorption Experiments.- 5.1.2 Estuary-Sediment Boundary.- 5.2 Redox Changes and Metal Release.- 5.2.1 Chemical Factors Affecting Metal Distribution in Interstitial Water.- 5.2.2 Physical Processes Affecting Metal Release from Pore Water.- 5.3 Metal Release by Acidic Water.- 5.3.1 Acid Mine Drainage.- 5.3.2 Acid Precipitation.- 5.4 Mobilization of Metals by Organic Complexing Agents.- 5.5 Mobilization of Heavy Metals by Microbial Activity.- 5.5.1 Microbial Interactions in Natural Environments.- 5.5.2 Bacterial Leaching of Metals.- 5.5.3 Microbial Action in the Mercury Cycle.- 5.5.4 Bacterial Methylation of Arsenic, Lead, and Selenium.- F Heavy Metals in Aquatic Organisms.- 1 Physico-Chemical Influences on the Toxicity and the Uptake of Heavy Metals with Respect to Organisms.- 1.1 Temperature and Oxygen Content.- 1.2 Water Hardness.- 1.3 Organic Compounds.- 1.4 pH Values.- 1.5 Salinity.- 2 Biologic Factors Affecting Heavy Metal Concentrations in Aquatic Organisms.- 2.1 General Physiologic Behavior.- 2.2 Life Cycle and Life History of the Organism.- 2.3 Seasonal Variations of Metal Content in Organisms.- 2.4 Species-Specific and Individual Variability.- 2.5 Contamination by Food and Intestine Content.- 3 Heavy Metal Enrichment in Limnic and Marine Organisms at Different Trophic Levels.- 3.1 Autotrophic Organisms.- 3.1.1 Phytoplankton.- 3.1.2 Marine Macroalgae.- 3.1.3 Freshwater Algae.- 3.1.4 Mosses.- 3.1.5 Higher Water Plants.- 3.2 Heterotrophic Organisms.- 3.2.1 Zooplankton.- 3.2.2 Bivalves.- 3.2.3 Higher Marine Crustaceans.- 3.2.4 Freshwater Crustaceans.- 3.2.5 Marine and Freshwater Fish.- 3.3 The Mobilization of Heavy Metals from Sediment by Aquatic Biota.- 3.4 Food Chain Enrichment in Aquatic Life.- G Trace Metals in Water Purification Processes.- 1 Heavy Metal Removal for the Production of Drinking Water.- 1.1 Obtaining Water by Bank Filtration.- 1.2 Artificial Recharge of Groundwater by Land Spreading and Injection.- 1.3 Direct Water Purification by Traditional Physico-Chemical Treatment (PCT) and Related Advanced Methods.- 1.3.1 Traditional Removal of Trace Metals by Pre-Clarification, Chlorination, Flocculation, and Filtration.- 1.3.2 Heavy Metal Removal by Chemical Precipitation.- 1.3.3 Activated Carbon Filtration in Drinking Water Purification.- 1.3.4 Heavy Metal Removal by Ion Exchange.- 1.3.5 Potential Metal Enrichments in the Water Distribution System.- 2 Heavy Metals in Industrial and Domestic Effluents.- 2.1 Effluents from the Electroplating Industry.- 2.2 Mercury Removal from Chlor-Alkali Plant Effluents.- 2.3 Prevention and Control of Acidic Mine Drainage.- 2.4 Heavy Metals in Urban Drainage SystemsBiologic Treatment (BT).- 2.4.1 Metal Extraction in the Mechanical (Primary) Sedimentation Unit.- 2.4.2 Reduction of Metal Loads in the Biologic Stage.- 2.5 Tertiary Physico-Chemical Treatment of Wastewater.- 3 Heavy Metals in Sewage Sludges.- 3.1 Land Application of Sewage Sludges.- 3.2 Impact of Heavy Metals on Groundwater Quality.- 3.3 Sewage Sludge Disposal to the Sea.- 3.4 Incineration of Sewage Sludge.- H Concluding Remarks.- 1 Disposal Versus Reuse.- 2 Alternative Materials.- References.

Mehr anzeigen


Metal Pollution in the Aquatic Environment
Kartonierter Einband
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Anzahl Seiten
H244mm x B170mm x T27mm
Softcover reprint of the original 2nd ed. 1981
Mehr anzeigen
Andere Kunden kauften auch