In the 12 years that have passed since the publication of Riintgenspektren und chemische Bindung, the original German work on which· this text is based, several aspects of high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy have devel oped rapidly. After accepting the suggestion of Dr. R.D. Deslattes that a translation should be prepared, we thoroughly revised the book in order to include these recent developments in theory, equipment and applications. The latest reSearch results and publications that had appeared by 1987/1988 have been taken into account in the analysis. However, as the general treatment of the German edition is still valid today, the organization of the contents did -not have to be modified. The present status of the field is adequately described just by the addition of supplementary material in the English edition. We have merely rearranged what was previously Chapter 4 into tabular form and placed it as an appendix. This presentation produces greater clarity and increases the ease with which the information can be referred to. We thank Dr. E. Kallne for undertaking the translation. We are grate ful to Dr. R.D. Deslattes and Dr. H. Lotsch for their conscientious and critical checking of the translation. Chapters 3 and 6 were updated by our colleague Dr. H. Sommer, to whom special thanks are due. It is our hope that this transiation and revision will make our text available to a larger section of the scientific community.
This book focuses on the relation between X-ray spectra and the electronic structure of matter. Discussions of the physical processes are combined with interpretation of spectra from the perspective of chemistry to give a unified and rigorous presentation that makes considerable use of chemical intuition and recognizes intrinsic complexities such as incomplete relaxation and multivacancy production. The authors review experimental methods, results and analyses, and apply the results to chemistry, materials science and the electronic structure of matter. The extensive bibliography facilitates access to primary literature.
1. Introduction.- 2. Theoretical Basis.- 2.1 General Survey.- 2.2 X-Ray Diagram Lines.- 2.3 X-Ray Emission Bands.- 2.4 X-Ray Satellites.- 2.4.1 Satellites from Multiplet Splitting.- 2.4.2 Satellites from Cross-Transitions.- 2.4.3 Satellites from Transitions Between Multiply Excited or Ionized States.- 2.4.4 Satellites from Radiative Auger Transitions.- 2.5 Bremsstrahlung and X-Ray Isochromat Spectra.- 2.6 Absorption Spectra.- 2.6.1 General Features.- 2.6.2 Near-Edge Structure of the Absorption Spectrum.- 2.6.3 Extended Fine Structure in Absorption Spectra.- 3. Recording of Spectra.- 3.1 General Structure of a High-Resolution X-Ray Spectrometer.- 3.2 Excitation of X-Ray Spectra.- 3.3 X-Ray Diffraction.- 3.4 Recording Spectra.- 3.5 Description of Some Spectrometers.- 3.6 Analysis of Measurement Results.- 4. Determination of Bonding Parameters and Effective Atomic Charges.- 4.1 Oxidation Stages and Bonding Ionicity.- 4.2 Structural Analysis.- 4.2.1 Analysis Using Emission and Near-Edge Absorption Spectra.- 4.2.2 Analysis Using EXAFS.- 4.3 Effective Atomic Charges.- 4.3.1 Concepts, Interpretation and Determination of Effective Atomic Charges.- 4.3.2 Determination from X-Ray Emission Spectra.- 4.3.3 Determination from X-Ray Absorption Spectra.- 5. Investigation of the Valence Electron Structure of Molecules and Isolated Groups in Crystals.- 5.1 Initial Remarks.- 5.2 Information Content of X-Ray Emission Bands and X-Ray Absorption Spectra.- 5.2.1 Determination of Energy Levels.- 5.2.2 Determination of the Symmetry of the Levels.- 5.2.3 Determination of MO LCAO Coefficients.- 5.3 Molecular Gases.- 5.3.1 Diatomic Molecules.- 5.3.2 Triatomic Molecules.- 5.3.3 Polyatomic Molecules.- 5.4 Organic Compounds.- 5.5 Coordination Compounds.- 5.5.1 Oxyanions of Elements of the 2nd and 3rd Periods.- 5.5.2 Complex Compounds of 3d Elements.- 5.5.3 Compounds of the 4d and 5d Elements.- 6. X-Ray Spectroscopic Studies of the Band Structure of Solids.- 6.1 Experimental Methods for Studying the Band Structure.- 6.2 Information Content of X-Ray Spectra.- 6.2.1 Interpretation of Emission Spectra in a Single-Particle Model.- 6.2.2 Interpretation of Absorption Spectra in a Single-Particle Model.- 6.2.3 Many-Body Interactions.- 6.3 Investigation of Elements.- 6.3.1 Metals from the Main Groups of the Periodic Table.- 6.3.2 Transition Metals.- 6.3.3 Alloys.- 6.3.4 Nonmetals.- 6.4 Compounds.- 6.4.1 AN B8-N Compounds.- 6.4.2 Other Compounds of Main-Group Elements.- 6.4.3 Transition-Metal Compounds.- References.- Appendix: Survey of X-Ray Spectra Investigations.- Literature.