Roots and tubers are considered as the most important food crops after cereals and contribute significantly to sustainable development, income generation and food security especially in the tropical regions. The perishable nature of roots and tubers demands appropriate storage conditions at different stages starting from farmers to its final consumers. Because of their highly perishable nature, search for efficient and better methods of preservation/processing have been continuing alongside the developments in different arena. This book covers the processing and technological aspects of root and tuber foods, detailing the production and processing of roots and tubers such as taro, cassava, sweet potato, yam and elephant foot yam. Featuring chapters on anatomy, taxonomy and physiology, molecular and biochemical characterization, GAP, GMP, HACCP, Storage techniques, as well as the latest technological interventions in Taro, Cassava, Sweet potato, yam and Elephant foot Yam.
About the Editors Harish K. Sharma Food Engineering and Technology Department, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, India Nicolas Y. Njintang Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Sciences; and National School of Agro Industrial Sciences (ENSAI), University of Ngaoundere, Cameroon Rekha S. Singhal Food Engineering and Technology Department, Institute of Chemical Technology, India Pragati Kaushal Food Engineering and Technology Department, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, India
Roots and tubers are a class of plant foods, which are significant components of the human diet in different countries across the world as well as the basis of agrarian subsistence economies in tropical regions. Tropical varieties of roots and tubers mainly discussed included sweet potatoes, yams, cassava, elephant foot yam and taro. As crops for human consumption, roots and tubers are starchy and high in energy content, and have long had an important role to play in ensuring food security in hot or humid climates, since, if stored correctly. Tropical Roots and Tubers: Production, Processing and Technology details the fundamental aspects to the latest development in the field, with emphasis on the possibilities to further increase roots' and tubers' utility and applications, through a variety of processing techniques and other technological interventions, creating new products such as starch, flour, snacks, bakery products etc. Topics covered include: * Anatomy, Taxonomy and Physiology * Molecular and biochemical characterization * GAP, GMP, HACCP * Storage techniques * The latest technological interventions in Taro, Cassava, Sweet potato, yam and Elephant foot Yam This book is a valuable reference for students, researchers, functional food specialists and agronomists in food technology and nutrition, especially fruits and vegetable science.
About the IFST Advances in Food Science Book Series xv List of Contributors xvii Preface xxi 1 Introduction to Tropical Roots and Tubers 1 Harish K. Sharma and Pragati Kaushal 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Roots and Tubers 3 1.3 Requirements for the Higher Productivity of Tropical Roots and Tubers 3 1.4 World Production and Consumption 7 1.5 Constraints in Tropical Root and Tuber Production 11 1.6 Classification and Salient Features of Major Tropical Roots and Tubers 12 1.7 Composition and Nutritional Value 12 1.8 Characteristics of Tropical Roots and Tubers 16 1.9 Anti-nutritional Factors in Roots and Tubers 16 1.10 Applications of Tropical Roots and Tubers 23 1.11 New Frontiers for Tropical Roots and Tubers 26 1.12 Future Aspects 27 References 28 2 Taxonomy, Anatomy, Physiology and Nutritional Aspects 34 Lochan Singh, Ashutosh Upadhyay, and Ashok K. Dhawan 2.1 Introduction 34 2.2 Taxonomy of Roots and Tuber Crops 38 2.3 Anatomy 70 2.4 Physiology of Root and Tuber Crops 107 2.5 Nutritional Perspective in Root and Tuber Crops 109 References 127 3 Tropical Roots and Tubers: Impact on Environment, Biochemical, Molecular Characterization of Different Varieties of Tropical Roots and Tubers 138 Chokkappan Mohan, Vidya Prasannakumary, and Aswathy G.H. Nair 3.1 Introduction 138 3.2 Genetic Diversity 139 3.3 Cassava 139 3.4 Sweet Potato 150 3.5 Taro 160 3.6 Yams 166 3.7 Future Aspects 171 References 172 4 Good Agricultural Practices in Tropical Root and Tuber Crops 183 Kuttumu Laxminarayana, Sanjibita Mishra, and Sarita Soumya 4.1 Introduction 183 4.2 Cassava 186 4.3 Sweet Potato 192 4.4 Yams 197 4.5 Elephant Foot Yam 201 4.6 Taro 204 4.7 Coleus 211 4.8 Arrowroot 213 4.9 Yam Bean 216 4.10 Future Perspectives 219 4.11 Summary and Future Research 220 References 221 5 Fermented Foods and Beverages from Tropical Roots and Tubers 225 Sandeep K. Panda and Ramesh C. Ray 5.1 Introduction 225 5.2 Food Fermentation 226 5.3 Summary and Future Perspectives 244 References 245 6 Storage Techniques and Commercialization 253 Agnes W. Kihurani and Pragati Kaushal 6.1 Introduction 253 6.2 Problems faced during Storage and their Preventive Measures 254 6.3 Losses Observed during Various Stages at the Time of Marketing 257 6.4 Methods employed for Storage of Roots and Tubers 261 6.5 Commercialization 269 6.6 Factors affecting Commercialization 269 6.7 Key Products and Final Markets for Commercialization 271 6.8 Trends in Commercialization 272 6.9 Future Research 273 References 273 7 Good Manufacturing Practices for Processing of Tropical Roots and Tubers 281 Anakalo A. Shitandi and Marion G. Kihumbu-Anakalo 7.1 Introduction 281 7.2 Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) 282 7.3 Key Importance of GMPs for Roots and Tubers 283 7.4 GMP Components 283 7.5 GMPs in Low-income Countries 298 7.6 Conclusions 298 Acknowledgements 299 References 299 8 Controlling Food Safety Hazards in Root and Tuber Processing: An HACCP Approach 301 Adewale O. Obadina and Ifeoluwa O. Adekoya 8.1 Food Safety 301 8.2 Food Safety Hazards 302 8.3 Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) 304 8.4 Roots and Tubers 308 8.5 Summary and Future Research 322 References 322 9 Taro: Technological Interventions 325 9.1 Taro Flour, Achu and Starch 326 Harish K. Sharma, Pragati Kaushal, and Bahadur Singh References 352 9.2 Bakery Products and Snacks based on Taro 362 Nicolas Y. Njintang, Joel Scher, and Carl M.F. Mbofung 9.3 Other Taro-based Products 395 Nicolas Y. Njintang, Joel Scher, and Carl M.F. Mbofung 10 Cassava: Technological Interventions 414 10.1 Cassava Flour and Starch: Processing Technology and Utilization 415 Taofik A. Shittu, Buliyaminu A. Alimi, Bashira Wahab, Lateef O. Sanni, and Adebayo B. Abass 10.2 Other Cassava-based Products 451 Ibok Nsa Oduro Acknowledgements 473 References 473 11 Sweet Potato: Technological Interventions 478 11.1 Sweet Potato Flour and Starch 479 Maninder Kaur and Kawaljit Singh Sandhu 11.2 Bakery Products and Snacks based on Sweet Potato 507 Tai-Hua Mu, Peng-Gao Li, and Hong-Nan Sun 11.3 Other Sweet Potato-based Products 532 Tai-Hua Mu, Hong-Nan Sun, and Peng-Gao Li 12 Yam: Technological Interventions 558 Rahman Akinoso and Olufunmilola A. Abiodun 12.1 Introduction 558 12.2 Importance of Yam in Tropical Regions 559 12.3 Yam Production 559 12.4 Consumption of Yam 560 12.5 Composition of Yam 562 12.6 Yam Processing and Utilization 563 12.7 Effects of Processing on the Quality of Yam 575 12.8 Technological Application to Yam Processing 576 12.9 Summary and Future Research 579 References 580 13 Amorphophallus: Technological Interventions 591 Ramesh C. Ray and Sudhanshu S. Behera 13.1 Introduction 591 13.2 Habit, Habitat and Distribution 592 13.3 Nutritional and Anti-nutritional Factors 593 13.4 Traditional Processing and Value Addition of EFY 594 13.5 EFY Processing with Technological Interventions 597 13.6 A. konjac K. Koch as Industrial Crop 599 13.7 Processing as Pharmaceutical Supplements 603 13.8 Summary and Future Perspectives 605 References 606 Index 613