This comprehensive textbook covers all major topics related to the utilization of mineral resources for human activities. It begins with general concepts like definitions of mineral resources, mineral resources and humans, recycling mineral resources, distribution of minerals resources across Earth, and international standards in mining, among others. Then it turns to a classification of mineral resources, covering the main types from a geological standpoint. The exploration of mineral resources is also treated, including geophysical methods of exploration, borehole geophysical logging, geochemical methods, drilling methods, and mineral deposit models in exploration.
Further, the book addresses the evaluation of mineral resources, from sampling techniques to the economic evaluation of mining projects (i.e. types and density of sampling, mean grade definition and calculation, Sichel's estimator, evaluation methods classical and geostatistical, economic evaluation NPV, IRR, and PP, estimation of risk, and software for evaluating mineral resources). It subsequently describes key mineral resource exploitation methods (open pit and underground mining) and the mineral processing required to obtain saleable products (crushing, grinding, sizing, ore separation, and concentrate dewatering, also with some text devoted to tailings dams). Lastly, the book discusses the environmental impact of mining, covering all the aspects of this very important topic, from the description of diverse impacts to the environmental impact assessment (EIA), which is essential in modern mining projects.
Equips students to handle the diverse situations in mineral resource exploration, evaluation and exploitation
Outlines each of the varied exploration methodologies and how to interpret the geochemical database results
Numerous step-by-step examples help the reader to learn quickly about mineral resource evaluation
Summarizes the basic guidelines to evaluate mining projects EIAs worlwide
Outlines each of the main mining software programs for geological exploration and mining designAutorentext
Manuel Bustillo Revuelta - Complutense University of Madrid, Facultad de Geología, Madrid, Spain. Inhalt
Introduction.- Definition and classification of mineral resources.- Mineral resources and the man.- Recycling of mineral resources.- Distribution of minerals resources in the earth.- Metal and mineral markets.- Mineral resources consumption: Hubbert model.- International standards in mining (NI 43-101, SAMREC, PERC, JORC, CRIRSCO...).- Types of Mineral Resources and Geology.- Mineral Resources related to igneous rocks (intrusive and extrusive).- Mineral Resources related to metamorphic rocks.- Mineral Resources related to sedimentary rocks (clastic and chemical).- Exploration of Mineral Resources.- Mineral projects and time.- Stages in prospect exploration: target generation, reconnaissance exploration, and detailed exploration.- Methods of exploration: geological mapping, satellite imagery and aerial photography, geophysical methods (magnetic, electric, electromagnetic, radiometric, gravity and seismic surveys; airbone prospecting; borehole geophysical logging), geochemical methods (primary and secondary haloes; types of sampling; interpretation of a geochemical data base -univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses-); drilling methods (reverse circulation drilling and diamond core drilling).- Mineral deposits models in exploration: descriptive, statistical, and genetic models.- Evaluation of Mineral Resources.- Sampling definition, types and density of sampling, and sample amount; analytical errors: fortuitous and systematic.- Mean grade definition and calculation: weighting and statistical methods Sichel´s estimator.- Evaluation methods: classical methods (polygonal, triangulation, sections, inverse distance, search window) and geostatistical methods (regionalized variables, semivariogram models, kriging, and cross validation; indicator kriging).- Economic evaluation of mining projects: definition and calculation of NPV, IRR, and PP. Estimation of risk: sensibility analysis and Montecarlo method.- Mineral Resources Evaluation Software.- Exploitation of Mineral Resources.- Surface mining and methods (open pit, hydraulicking, placer, dredging, solution, etc.).- Underground mining and methods (unsupported,supported, and caving).- Basic production cycle and units operations (drill, blast, load, and haul).- Mineral Resources Exploitation Software.- Mineral Processing.- Crushing equipments: jaw crushers, cone crushers, impact mills.- Grinding equipments (rod mills, ball mills, autogenous and semiautogenous mills, hammer mills) and sizing equipments (vibrating screens, etc.).- Ore separation processes: gravity concentration, froth flotation, magnetic separation, etc.- Concentrate dewatering equipments: thickeners, drum filters, disk filters, and pressure filters.- Tailings dam: objectives, construction methods (upstream, downstream, and centerline), and water control and management.- Environmental Impacts of Mining.- Impact of mining on the atmosphere (dusts, gases, high intensity noises, pollution, vibrations,).- Impact of mining on the biosphere (Acid mine drainage, alteration of phreatic levels, other contamination, changes in soil profile,).- Lost of biodiversity.- Geophysical hazards (i.e. subsidence, landslides, induced seismicity,).- Reclamation; sustainable development and mine Rehabilitation.- Environmental impact assessment (EIA).