Positron Annihilation in Chemistry

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Beschreibung

The only critical discussion available on the chemistry of the two "strange" light particles, the positron and positronium, with much space devoted to the excess electron. Positron annihilation allows the investigation of many unusual phenomena in the reaction kinetics of the positron, positronium, and excess electron, and in radiation chemistry and physics, while also providing important information on defects in solids.

Klappentext

The only critical discussion available on the chemistry of the two "strange" light particles, the positron and positronium, with much space devoted to the excess electron. Positron annihilation allows the investigation of many unusual phenomena in the reaction kinetics of the positron, positronium, and excess electron, and in radiation chemistry and physics, while also providing important information on defects in solids.



Inhalt

1.Introduction.- 1.1 Positron Annihilation in Chemistry.- 1.2 History of Chemistry-Oriented Positron Annihilation Studies.- 1.3 Review of Physics-Oriented Positron Research.- 1.4 The Content and Intention of this Book.- 2 Theory.- 2.1 The Annihilation Probability.- 2.2 Atomic Physics of Positronium (Ps).- 2.3 Application of the Theory.- 3 Experimental Techniques.- 3.1 Positron Lifetime (LT) Technique.- 3.1.1 Elementary Description of a LT Spectrometer.- 3.1.2 Special Problems of LT Measurements.- 3.1.3 General Remarks on the Data Analysis.- 3.1.4 Data Analysis of LT Spectra.- 3.2 Angular Correlation (AC) Measurements.- 3.2.1 Experimental.- 3.2.2 Data Analysis of AC Spectra.- 3.3 Doppler Broadening (DB) Measurements.- 3.4 Miscellaneous Measurements.- 4 Light Particle States in Insulating Matter.- 4.1 General Remarks.- 4.2 The Excess Electron.- 4.3 The Positron States in Liquids.- 4.4 The Ps States in Liquids.- 4.5 Short Remarks on Light Particle States in Solids and Gases.- 4.6 Measurable Properties of Light Particles.- 5 The Positron Spur and Ps Formation in Pure Liquids.- 5.1 The Positron Track and its Terminal Spur.- 5.2 Homogeneous, Long Time Irradiation by Positron Slowing Down.- 5.3 Determination of the Ps Yield.- 5.4 Formation of Ps in the Positron Spur.- 5.5 The Measured Ps Yields for Pure Liquids.- 6 Solvated Positron Reactions. Models of Reaction Kinetics.- 6.1 Hydrated Positron Reactions with Halides.- 6.2 Reaction Kinetics in Positron Annihilation.- 6.3 Discussion of $$ {\text{e}}_{\text{aq}}^{\text{C}} $$ Reactions. Low Concentrations.- 6.4 Discussion of $$ {\text{e}}_{\text{aq}}^{\text{C}} $$ Reactions. High Concentrations.- 7 Positronium Formation in Solutions.- 7.1 Special Cases of Ps Formation in Nonpolar Mixtures.- 7.2 Theory of Ps Inhibition and Antiinhibition.- 7.3 Empirical Expression for the Ps Yield.- 7.4 Positronium Formation in Mixtures of Nonpolar Liquids.- 7.5 Positronium Formation in Solutions of Polar Liquids.- 7.6 Miscellaneous Ps Yield Effects.- 7.7 The Older Ps Formation Models.- 8 Positronium Reactions in Solutions.- 8.1 Kinetic Equations of Positronium Reactions.- 8.2 An Example of Ps Quenching and Inhibition.- 8.3 Positronium Quenching by Mainly Organic Molecules in Solutions.- 8.4 Paramagnetic Quenching of Positronium in Solutions.- 8.5 Positronium Reactions with Ions in Aqueous Solutions.- 9 Principles of Positron Annihilation in Molecular Solids.- 9.1 Positronium Bloch Functions and Ps Trapping in Defects.- 9.2 Positronium Trapping in Vacancies in Plastic Crystals.- 9.3 Positronium Formation in Solid Aromatic Hydrocarbons.- 9.4 Positronium in Some Other Molecular Crystals.- 9.5 Slow-Positron Beam Studies of Solids.- 10 Polymers and Miscellaneous Molecular Compounds.- 10.1 Transition from Glassy to Normal Liquid State.- 10.2 Positron Annihilation in Polymers.- 10.3 Electric Field Dependence of the Ps Yield.- 10.4 Liquid Crystals and Miscellaneous Liquids.- 10.5 Miscellaneous Solids.- 11 Conclusion.- References.- Index of Chemicals.

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Produktinformationen

Titel
Positron Annihilation in Chemistry
Autor
EAN
9783642851254
ISBN
3642851258
Format
Kartonierter Einband
Herausgeber
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Anzahl Seiten
280
Gewicht
429g
Größe
H235mm x B155mm x T15mm
Jahr
2012
Untertitel
Englisch
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