Small-scale structures in turbulent flows appear as a subtle mixture of order and chaos that could play an important role in the energetics. The aim here is a better understanding of the similarities and differences between vortex and current dynamics, and of the influence of these structures on the statistical and transport properties of hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, with special concern for fusion plasmas, and solar or magnetospheric environments. Special emphasis is given to the intermittency at inertial scales and to the coherent structures at small scales. Magnetic reconnection and the dynamo effect are also discussed, together with the effect of stratification and inhomogeneity. The impact of hydrodynamic concepts on astro and geophysical observations are reviewed.
From the contents: Turbulent Flows.- Structures in Hydrodynamic Turbulence.- Intermittency.- Stratified and Inhomogeneous Flows.- Structures in MHD Flows.- Magnetic Reconnection and Dynamo.- Astro- and Geophysical Flows.