This book reviews recent advances in experimental and theoretical understanding of phenomena on the picosecond and femtosecond time scales. The technology and applications in this field have shown remarkable progress recently. It is now possible to produce and measure pulses much shorter than 10 fs, which is approaching the inherent limit, in the visible region. Improvements in wavelength range, power levels and other performance parameters are also reported. These high-performance light sources are being used to study ultrafast phenomena in physical, chemical and biological systems and in artificial devices. The recent results reported and reviewed in this book provide a picture of the current status of the field.
I Generation, Amplification and Compression of Ultrashort Light Pulses.- Chirped Pulse Amplification: Present and Future.- Generation of Intense 20-fs Pulses and Their Application in Multiphoton Ionization.- Generation of Tunable 9-fs Optical Pulses in the Near Infrared.- Amplification and Compression of 16-fs Spectrally Broadened Pulses to the Microjoule Level at 10 kHz.- Generation of High-Repetition-Rate 14-fs Amplified Pulses Using a Q-Switched CW YAG Pumping Laser.- 10 kHz-Rate Amplification of 40-fs Optical Pulses at Low Pumping Energy.- Generation of 29-fs Pulses from a Synchronously Pumped Dye Laser and Its Cavity-Dumping Technique.- Colliding Pulse Mode-Locked Femtosecond Laser Using Binary-Energy-Transfer Gain Dye Mixture.- Saturable Amplification Without Pulse Broadening.- General Analysis of Optical Cavities for Femtosecond Dye Lasers.- Chirp-Compensation Cavity-Mirrors of Small Third-Order Dispersion for a Femtosecond Pulse Laser.- Theoretical and Experimental Study of Synchronously Pumped Dispersion Compensated Femtosecond Fiber Raman Lasers and Amplifiers.- Compression of the High Energy Pulsed Mode-Locked Nd:YLF and Nd:YAG Lasers.- Active Pulse Compression.- Two Novel Techniques for Femtosecond Pulse Compression: Utilization of Induced Phase Modulation and Highly Nonlinear Organic-Fibers.- Generation of Sub-100-fs Pulses at 532 nm from Modulation Instability Induced by Cross-Phase Modulation in Optical Fibers.- Femtosecond Continuum Generation in Fibers Near 1.6 ?m.- Picosecond Pulse Generation by Two-Photon Induced Amplified Spontaneous Emission.- Mode-Locked Continuous Wave Titanium Sapphire Laser.- Non-soliton Modelocking of an F-Centre Laser with a Nonlinear External Cavity.- Significance of Enhanced Differential Gain for Short Pulse Generation in Semiconductor Lasers.- Characteristics of Picosecond Pulse Amplification by a Traveling-Wave InGaAsP Optical Amplifier.- A Few Tens of Picoseconds Light Source of Continuous Spectrum with Cherenkov Radiation.- II Generation of Short-Wavelength Ultrashort Light Pulses.- Generation of High Power UV Femtosecond Pulses.- Subpicosecond UV Pulse Generation for Multiterawatt XeCl and KrF Lasers.- Subpicosecond, High-Brightness Excimer Laser Systems.- Sub-100-fs Pulse Generation from Continuously Pumped Coumarin Dye Lasers in the Green-Blue.- Generation of Intense Tunable Femtosecond Pulses in the Deep Blue Spectral Region.- New Developments in Ultraviolet and High Intensity Femtosecond Sources.- III Propagation, Control and Measurement of Ultrashort Light Pulses.- Dispersive Pulse Shaping and Soliton-like Pulses in a Passively Mode-Locked Dye Ring Laser.- Control and Characterization of Soliton-like Pulses in a Femtosecond Dye Laser.- Solitons in the Region of the Minimum Group Dispersion Wavelength of a Single Mode Optical Fibre.- Femtosecond Pulse Tailoring for Dark Soliton Propagation Studies.- White Light Interferometric Measurements of Femtosecond Group Delay in Optical Components with 1-fs Precision.- Caution! IR Pulses May Be Distorted After Propagation in Atmospheric Air.- Pulse Front Distortion in Lens Systems.- Blue Shifting of Intense Femtosecond Pulses in Gas Breakdown and Solid State Plasmas.- Time Domain Phase Conjugation and Twin Fields of Picosecond Light Continuum.- Picosecond to Femtosecond Optical Synthesizers.- Synthesis and Applications of Arbitrarily Shaped Optical Pulses in Coherent Spectroscopy and Nonlinear Pulse Propagation.- A New Method for Measuring Ultrashort Optical Pulses.- A Phase Sensitive Single Pulse Autocorrelator for Ultrashort Laser Pulses.- Single Shot Measurement of Optical Phase Modulation with Subpicosecond Resolution by Temporal Holography.- A Method of Evaluation of Ultrashort Light Pulses Based on Self-Phase Modulation.- Measurement of Femtosecond Pulsewidths Using Interference Autocorrelation.- Recent Advances Towards a 100-fs-Resolution Streak Camera.- IV Opto-Electronics and Communications.- Advanced Optical Communications Technologies Utilizing Ultrashort Optical Pulses.- Femtosecond All-Optical Switching in Nonlinear Directional Couplers.- Picosecond Switching of Surface-Emitting Laser Diodes.- Ultrafast Optical Switching Based on Stimulated Emission in GaAs/AlGaAs Multiple Quantum Wells.- Picosecond Characterization of InGaAs/InAlAs Resonant Tunneling Barrier Diode by Electro-Optic Sampling.- Tunneling-Time Measurements of a Resonant Tunneling Diode.- Electro-Optic Sampling of a Flip-Chip with a Distributed Feedback Laser Diode.- A New Scheme of Resolution Improved Electrooptic Sampling.- Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodiode on GaInAs Exhibiting Very Fast Response.- Picosecond HEMT Photodetector: Improvement of Response Speed at Low Temperatures.- Picosecond Transient Propagation Studies on Thin-Film Y-Ba-Cu-O Transmission Lines.- Greater than 100 GHz Traveling Wave Modulator.- V Applications to Solid-State Physics.- Ultrafast Scattering and Energy Relaxation of Optically Excited Carriers in GaAs and AlGaAs.- Time-Resolved Terahertz Conductivity of Photoinjected Hot Electrons in Gallium Arsenide.- Femtosecond Transients and Dynamic Stark Effect in Semiconductors.- Bleaching of an Exciton Line Using Sub-T2 Pulses: Artifact or Reality?.- Picosecond-Laser-Driven Shock Wave Dynamics in Semiconductors.- Hole Burning in the Free Exciton Line in GaSe.- High Density Femtosecond Excitation of Hot Carrier Distributions in InP and InGaAs.- Single-Shot Reflectivity Study of the Picosecond Melting of Silicon Using a Streak Camera.- Subpicosecond Transient Grating Experiments in Amorphous Semiconductors.- Femtosecond Dynamics of Optical Nonlinearities in Wide-Gap II-VI Semiconductors.- Nonlinear Process-Induced Higher-Order Components of a Picosecond Transient Grating in CdS.- Dynamics of Exciton-Polariton Luminescence with High Repetition Tunable UV Picosecond Pulses.- Picosecond Dynamics of Exciton Polaritons in CuCl Single Crystals.- Dynamics of Free and Momentarily Localized Excitons in HgI2 and PbI2.- Formation and Relaxation of Excitonic Magnetic Polarons in Cd1-xMn xTe and Cd1-xMn xSe.- Space- and Time-Resolved Spectroscopy of the Ultrafast Exciton Motion at a Stacking Fault Interface in Layered BiI3 Crystals.- Ultrafast Optical Dephasing of Two-Dimensional Excitons in BiI3.- Ultrafast Relaxation of Localized Excitations in Solids.- Double Laser Excitation Spectroscopy on Picosecond Photochemical Reactions in Alkali Halide Crystals.- Femtosecond to Microsecond Dynamics of Photoexcitations in a Polydiacetylene Film.- Ultrashort Surface-Plasmon and Phonon Dynamics.- Femtosecond Image-Potential Dynamics in Metals.- VI Dynamical Processes in Semiconductor Quantum Wells and Microstructures.- Femtosecond Luminescence Spectroscopy: Investigation of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Microstructures.- Femtosecond Carrier-Carrier Scattering Dynamics in p-Type and n-Type Modulation-Doped Quantum Wells.- Cooling of Hot Carriers in Three- and Two-Dimensional Ga0.47In0.53As.- Tunneling Processes in AlAs/GaAs Double Quantum Wells.- Picosecond Laser Study of Electron Dynamics in Resonant Tunneling Structures.- Phase Relaxation of Two-Dimensional Excitons in a GaAs Single Quantum Well.- Intra-Well and Cross-Well Transport Measurements in Multiple Quantum Wells Using Transient Gratings.- Pulse Propagation in GaAs Quantum Wells.- Excitonic-Polariton Propagation in a GaAs/AlGaAs Quantum Well.- Investigation of Intersubband Relaxation in GaAs/Al xGa1-xAs Quantum Well Structures by an Infrared Bleaching Technique.- Time-Resolved Photoluminescence Spectroscopy of GaAs Quantum Wells with 1W Picosecond Light Pulses Generated from a Visible Diode Laser.- Light-Induced Selection Rules in Semiconductors Using Ultrashort Pulses.- Simultaneous Virtual and Two-Photon Femtosecond Excitations in GaAs MQWS.- Ultrafast Control of Quantum Interference Currents by Virtual Charge Polarizations in Biased Quantum Well Structures.- Ultrafast Inter-Subband Relaxation of Photoexcited Carriers in Semiconductor Quantum Dots.- Ultrafast Optical Nonlinearity in Semiconductor-Doped Glasses Controlled Through the Trapping State.- VII Nonlinear Optics, Coherent Spectroscopy and Spectroscopic Methods.- Femtosecond Photon Echoes.- Fourier-Transform Spectroscopy in Dye-Doped Polymer Films Using Femtosecond Accumulated Photon Echo.- Ultrafast Dynamics of Excitons and Polarons in Molecular Aggregates.- Femtosecond Relaxation Studies of Semiconductors and Large Molecules.- Coherent Time- and Frequency-Domain Spectroscopy with a Picosecond Distributed Feedback Dye Laser.- Raman Quantum Beats Obtained by Impulsive Stimulated Raman Scattering Close to an Electronic Resonance.- Picosecond Pump-Probe Interferometry of Nonlinear-Refractive Materials.- Measurement of Ultrashort Phase Relaxation Time of Semiconductor-Doped Glasses with Chirped Pulses.- Ultrafast Fluorometry Using Temporally Incoherent Light.- Femtosecond Kerr Dynamics and Three-Beam Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing with Incoherent Light.- Fluorescence Lifetime Measurement by Optical Kerr Shutter Gated with Incoherent Light.- New Method for the Measurement of Dephasing Time Using Incoherent Light with Reduced Noise and Its Application to CdS Fine Particles.- Estimation of Ultrafast Relaxation Parameters from Excitation Spectra for Second-Order Optical Processes.- Rise-Fall Ambiguities and Their Removal from Frequency-Domain Ultrafast-Measurement Techniques.- Time-Resolved Resonant Light Scattering of an Electron-Hole System in an Intense Laser Field.- Microscopic Theory of Ultrafast Nonlinear Optical Phenomena in an Electron-Phonon System.- Weak Localization of Femtosecond Laser Pulses by Random Media.- Measurements of the Electronic Wave Function in the Time Domain.- Above-Threshold Ionization Observed in the Femtosecond Regime.- Two-Photon Absorption Sampling Spectroscopy for Fast Transient Luminescence Measurements.- Application of the Time Characteristics of Synchrotron Radiation to Transient Spectroscopy.- VIII Dynamics on Surfaces and at Interfaces.- Femtosecond Laser Photoionization Mass Spectrometry of Molecules on Surfaces.- Picosecond Photoionization Mass Spectroscopy and Optical Spectroscopy of Hot Semiconductor Surfaces.- Picosecond Surface Reaction Dynamics and Carrier Processes at Semiconductor Interfaces.- Direct Observation of Photodynamics in Opaque Organic Microcrystals: A Picosecond Diffuse Reflectance Laser Photolysis Study.- Sequential Excitation Energy Transport in Stacking Multilayers: A Comparative Study Between Photosynthetic Antenna and Langmuir-Blodgett Multilayers.- Fluorescence Lifetime of Dye Molecules Near a Metal Surface.- Molecular Aspects of Fast Fluorescence Dynamics in Amorphous Poly(N-Vinylcarbazole) Films.- IX Energy Transfer and Relaxation.- Picosecond and Femtosecond Infrared Spectroscopy with CW Diode Lasers.- Vibrational Relaxation Measurements of Carbon Monoxide on Metal Clusters.- Vibrational Relaxation Pathways of the N-H Stretch of Pyrrole in Liquids.- Picosecond Infrared Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Molecules.- Time- and Frequency-Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy with Picosecond Pulses.- Femtosecond Dephasing Processes of Molecular Vibrations.- Effects of Coherence Transfer on Time-Resolved Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering and Transient Response of Resonant Light Scattering from Molecules.- Vibrational Dynamics in the S1 and S0 States of Dye Molecules, Studied Separately by Femtosecond Polarization Spectroscopy.- Femtosecond Time and Frequency Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy of a Dye Molecule.- Supercontinuum Spectroscopy of Ethyl Violet Using a Simple Pulse Compression Technique.- The Effect of Overlapping Electronic Excited States on the Subpicosecond Fluorescence Anisotropy Decay Behavior of Tryptophan in Water.- External Magnetic Field Effect on the Fluorescence of CS2 Excited to the V1B2 State.- Picosecond Pulse Laser Photoelectron Spectra of Some Molecular Excited States.- Simultaneous Analysis of the Fluorescence Decay Surface of Tryptophan as a Function of Temperature, pH, Quencher and Emission Wavelength.- Picosecond Laser Photolysis of 1,8-Dibromoanthraquinone in Carbon Tetrachloride at Room Temperature.- Double- to Triple-Minima Change in the Adiabatic Potential Energy Curve and Exciton Relaxation Dynamics in ?-Perylene Crystals By K. Mizuno, M. Furukawa, A. Matsui, N. Tamai.- Time-Resolved Exciton Self-Trapping in Pyrene Crystals.- X Chemical Reaction and Solvation Dynamics.- Femtosecond Spectroscopy of Transition States in Reactions.- Phase-Coherent Molecular Dynamics and Phase-Coherent Chemistry: Observation and Manipulation of Elementary Molecular Motion and Chemical Change.- Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy of Transient Ion Pair States in Solution.- Geminate Recombination in Excited State Proton Transfer Reactions: Picosecond Dynamics in Electrolyte Solutions.- Barrierless Isomerization in Solution Studied by Pico- and Subpicosecond Spectroscopy.- Freezing of an Isomerization Reaction at Phase Transition.- Trapping and Solvation of Electrons in Aqueous Media.- Dynamics of Polar Solvation.- Ultrafast Molecular Dynamics in Solvating Liquids.- Unified Theory of Solvation Dynamics in Nonlinear Optical Processes and Electron Transfer.- Coherent Vibrational Motion in Liquids: The Inhomogeneously Broadened Distribution of Intermolecular Oscillators.- Hydrodynamic and Molecular Contributions to Rotational Diffusion in Liquids.- Influence of Functional Groups and Solvent on the Photoisomerization of Stilbenes.- Dynamics of Intramolecular Electron Transfer in Viscous Polar Solvents.- Picosecond Investigation of Photoinduced Intramolecular Charge Transfer and Solvent Cage Relaxation Processes: Laser Dye DCM.- Picosecond Ultraviolet Multiphoton Ionization and Geminate Charge Recombination in Hydrocarbon Solvents.- Picosecond Ketyl Radical Spectroscopy.- Electron Transfer Rates in Covalently Linked Donor-Acceptor Systems.- Excitation Transfer and Photo-Induced Electron Transfer in Conformationally Restricted Porphyrin Systems.- XI Dynamics of Biological Processes.- Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Biological Processes.- Femtosecond Excited-State Reaction Dynamics of Retinal-Containing Photosystems.- Direct Observation of the Femtosecond Excited-State cis-trans Isomerization in Bacteriorhodopsin.- Polarized Pump-Probe Spectroscopy of Exciton Transport in Bacteriochlorophyll a-Protein from Prosthecochloris aestuarii.- Picosecond Excitation Transport in Photosynthesis: Factors for Optimization of Light Harvesting.- Excitation Energy Annihilation in Aggregates of Chlorophyll a/b Complexes.- Picosecond Studies of Dynamic Solvent Effects on a DNA Intercalator by a Synchroscan Streak Camera System.- Picosecond Fluorescence and Absorbance Study of Charge Separation and Charge Stabilization Processes in Photosystem II Particles.- Picosecond Absorption Spectra of a Reaction Center from a Novel Thermophilic Photosynthetic Bacterium Chromatium tepidum.- Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectra of D-Amino Acid Oxidase: A New Fluorescent Species of the Coenzyme.- Index of Contributors.