This volume contains papers presented at the Tenth International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena held at Del Coronado, California, from May 28 to June 1, 1996. The biannual Ultrafast Phenomena Conferences provide a forum for the discussion of the latest advances in ultrafast optics and their applications in science and engineering. The Ultrafast Phenomena Conference maintains a broad international representation with 391 participants from 18 countries, including 94 students attending the conference. The multidisciplinary character of this meeting provides a cross-fertilization of ultrafast concepts and techniques among various scientific and engineering disciplines. The enthusiasm of the paticipants, the originality and quality of the papers that they presented, and the beautiful conference site combined to produce a very successful and enjoyable meeting. Progress was reported in the technology of generating ultrashort pulses, in cluding new techniques for improving laser-pulse duration, output power, wave length range, and compactness. Ultrafast spectroscopy continues to impact on and expand the knowledge base of fundamental processes in physics, chemistry, biol ogy and engineering. In addition ultrafast phenomena now extends to real-world applications in biology, high-speed communication, and material diagnostics. The Tenth Ultrafast Phenomena Conference was highlighted by a 'special event' in which the developments of the previous conferences were reviewed in a panel discussion by G. Mourou, E. Ippen, A. Migus, A. Laubereau and R. Hochstrasser.
BUltrafast Phenomena X /Bpresents the latest advances in ultrafast technology and the study of ultrafast phenomena. It includes picosecond and femtosecond processes in physics, chemistry, and biology as well as engineering applications of ultrafast technology. Ultrafast laser and measurement technology on the picosecond and femtosecond time scales has a profound impact in a wide range of scientific and engineering applications and extends also towards real-world applications in biology, high-speed communication and material diagnostics. This book summarizes results presented at the 10th Ultrafast Phenomena Conference and describes the state of the art of this exciting and rapidly advancing field.
I Ultrafast Lasers and Sources.- Advances in All-Solid-State Ultrafast Lasers.- Physics and Scaling of Saturable Bragg Reflector-Modelocked Diode-Pumped Solid State Ultrafast Lasers.- Ultrabroad-Band Ring Oscillator for Short Pulse Generation.- Frequency-Dependent Mode-Size in Kerr-Lens Modelocked Lasers.- Toward Coherent Control on a Sub-10fs Time Scale.- Generation Dynamics of Solid-State Lasers Mode Locked by Antiresonant Loop.- Ultraviolet Picosecond Pulses from an All-Solid-State Ce:Flouride Master Oscillator and Power Amplifier System.- High-Power and Frequency-Doubled Stretched-Pulse Fiber Laser.- An Electronically Wavelength Tunable Mode-Locked Fiber Laser Using an All-Fiber Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter.- Femtosecond Chirped-Pulse Multifrequency Sources.- "Pulse Shaping" of Incoherent Light by Use of a Liquid Crystal Modulator Array.- High-Resolution Ultrafast Laser Pulse Shaping for Quantum Control and Terabit per Second Communications.- 10- to 80-Gb/s, Highly Extinctive Electrooptic Pulse Pattern Generation.- II Parameteric Generation.- Ultrafast Visible Optical Parametric Oscillators: A Route to Tunable Sub-10-Femtosecond Pulses?.- Tunable 50 fs Pulses in the Visible by Up-Conversion of Parametrically Generated Pulses in the Near Infrared.- A Potassium Niobate OPA Pumped by an Amplified Ti:Sapphire Laser.- Midinfrared Femtosecond Pulse Generation Using a 250 kHz Ti:Sapphire Pumped BBO OPA and DFG in AgGaS2.- Generation and Applications of Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Pulses Obtained by Optical Rectification of 15-fs Near-Infrared Pulses.- Fiber Laser Pumped Femtosecond Optical Parametric Generator.- III Terahertz Sources and Techniques.- Previously Impossible Measurements Made Possible by THz-Time-Domain Spectroscopy.- Noncontact Semiconductor Wafer Characerization with T-Rays.- Electro-Optic Imaging of THz Beams.- High Resolution Sub-Millimeter Spectroscopy Using Mode-Locked Laser Driven Electro-Optic Antennas.- Pulsed Terahertz Spectroscopy of Solutions: Experiment and Memory Function Analysis.- Free-Space Electro-Optic Samplers.- Tunable Photoconducting Emitters and Detectors of Free Space Terahertz Radiation.- Superradiant Terahertz Emission from Bloch Oscillations.- Transient Grating with Asymmetric Arms for Electro-Optic Generation of THz Radiation.- Terahertz Waveform Synthesis and Enhanced Narrow-Band Terahertz Generation Using Femtosecond Pulse Shaping.- Diffracting Fourier-Transform Spectroscopy Using Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Pulses.- IV High Brightness Light Pulses: Systems and Techniques.- Generation of 25 TW, 32 fs Pulses at 10 Hz.- Sub-20-fs Multiterawatt Laser and Ultrafast X-Ray Source.- 16 fs Pulse Generation and Measurement in the Ultraviolet and Vacuum Ultraviolet.- High Energy 10 fs Pulses by a New Pulse Compression Technique Using Hollow Quartz Waveguides.- On the Pulse Quality Limitations in Ultrashort Chirped Pulse Amplification.- Chirped-Pulse Amplifiaction with a Fiber Stretcher and a Grism Compressor.- Regenerative Pulse Shaping: A New Technique for Ultrabroadband Amplification.- Compensation of SPM-Induced Pulse Distortions in Chirped-Pulse Amplification Systems.- V High-Field Physics and X-Ray Generation.- Laser Electron Interactions at Critical Field Strength.- Nonlinear Optics in the Relativistic Regime.- Excitation of Surface Electromagnetic Waves in High-Temperature Near-Surface Plasmas; Resonance Second Harmonic Generation.- Selfchannelling of Intense Femtosecond Optical Pulses Through Air in the Transient Regime.- Enhanced Ionization of Molecular Ions in Intense Laser Fields: Experiments on the Iodine Melecule.- Direct Observation of Coherent Two-Photon Medium Response Induced by Femtosecond Deep UV-Laser Pulses in Krytpon.- Picosecond Time-Resolved Pump-Probe XUV Absorption L-Edge Spectroscopy.- Measurement of High Harmonic Pulse Durations Via Laser Assisted X-Ray Photoionization.- Energy Penetration of Ultrahigh Intensity Short Laser Pulses into Overdense Plasmas Through Solitons.- Observation of Relativistic Self-Focusing, Self-Channeling and Filamentation of Multiterawatt Ultra-Short Laser Pulses in Optical-Field Ionized Argon Gas Jets.- Harmonic Generation from a Sharp Plasma-Vacuum Boundary.- Enhanced High-Harmonic Generation with Ultrashort 25 fs Pulses.- Femtosecond X-Rays Generated via 90° Thomson Scattering.- Double-Pulse Pumped Efficient X-Ray Laser Utilizing Transient Gain.- Generation of Short-Pulse XUV Radiation by Phase-Matched High-Order Difference-Frequency Mixing in Plasmas.- Measurement of Laser Wakefield Oscillations by Femtosecond Longitudinal Interferometry.- VI Applications of Femtosecond Sources and Novel Techniques.- Multiphoton Molecular Excitation to Illuminate Non-linear Laser Microscopy.- Two-Photon Excitation Scanning Microscopy with a Compact SBR-Modelocked Diode-Pumped Cr:LiSAF Laser.- Two-Photon Excited Flourescence Microscopy with Time and Wavelength Resolved Detection.- Femtosecond Optical Spectroscopy and Scanning Probe Microscopy.- Ultrafast Equal Pulse Correlation Measurements in GaAs Structures with a Near-Field Microscope.- Optical Coherence Tomographic Imaging Using a Mode Locked Cr4+:Forsterite Laser Source.- Modelling of the Propagation of Light in Turbid Media from Femtosecond Pulse Transmission Measurements.- Temporal Polarization Gating of Light Propagating in Highly Scattering Medium.- Atomic Streak Camera Probing of Wave Packet Decay Plus a FIR Streak Camera Concept.- Demonstration of a Sub-Picosecond X-Ray Streak Camera.- Time-Space Conversion Using Chirped Pulses for Three-Dimensional Shape Measurements.- 3-D Optical Storage and Engraving Inside Transparent Materials.- Multi-Dimensional Femtosecond Pulse Shaping.- Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating Using Surface Third-Harmonic Generation.- Complete Temporal Characterization of the Polarization State of Weak Ultrashort Signals.- Recent Developments in Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating: Measurement of Ultraweak Ultrashort Pulses.- 13 fs Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating Measurements with Thin Poled Nonlinear Polymers.- Spectrally-Resolved, DC-Balanced Homodyne Detection for Ultrafast, Multimode, Quantum Field State Measurement.- Measuring Femtosecond Pulses with Linear Optics and Nonlinear Electronics.- Probing Ultrashort Electrical Pulses by Optical Second Harmonic Generation.- All-Optical Recognition of Terabit-per-Second Bit Patterns.- Femtosecond Time-Resolved Phase Spectroscopy Using a Novel Sagnac Interferometer.- Dynamical Studies of Non-linear Refractive Index by Cross Phase Modulation.- Broadband Fiber Dispersion Compensation for Sub-100-Femtosecond Pulses with Compression Ratio of 300.- Parametric Trapping and Self-Ordering of Solitons.- VII Ultrafast Coherent Techniques, Wavepacket Motion and Coherent Control.- Wavepacket Dynamics via Femtosecond Time-Resolved Photoelectron and Photoionization Spectroscopy.- Mapping of Vibrational Wave Packet Motion and Coherent Control of Molecular Ionization by a Chirped fs Laser Pulse.- Vibrational Wave Packet Propagation Dynamics in the Dissociative K3 Molecule.- Preparation and Interrogation of Vibronic Coherences in Condensed Media: I2 Isolated in Condensed Rare Gases.- Temperature Dependent Electronic Dephasing of Molecules in Polymers Measured by Femtosecond Three Pulse Photon Echoes.- Photon Echo Measurements in Liquids Using Pulses Longer Than the Electronic Dephasing Time.- Wavepacket Motion Observed in an Ultrafast Electron Transfer System.- Selective Excitation of Wavepacket Motion in the Condensed Phase Using Chirped Pulses.- Wavepacket Dynamics in Polydiacetylene Thin Films.- Role of Symmetry Breaking in Transfer of Vibrational Coherence from Reactant to Product.- Enhancement of Degenerate Four Wave Mixing from a Conjugated Polymer by Femtosecond Optical Pumping.- Femtosecond 3 Pulse Stimulated Photon Echo Peak Shift Measurements of Organic Polymer Glass from Room Temperature to 30 K.- Femtosecond Nonlinear Investigations of Molecular Motion in Liquids.- Coherent Control in Ultrafast Photon Echo Spectroscopy: Liouville-Space Pathways Interference.- On the Strong-Field Quantum Control Problem in Matter.- Quantum Control from the Gas to Condensed Phase.- Optimal Sequences for Chirped-Pulse-Stimulated Vibrational Motion.- Vibrational Mode Suppression in the Non-Markovian Limit: Diagonal Time-Gating of the Stimulated Photon Echo.- VIII Ultrafast Photochemistry.- Ultrafast Dynamics in Intermolecular Electron Transfer.- Factoring the Contribution of Through-Space and Through-Bond Interactions to Rates of Photoinduced Electron Transfer in Donor-Spacer-Acceptor Molecules Using Ultrafast Transient Absorption Spectroscopy.- Femtosecond Electron Transfer and Real Time Investigation of a Disulfide Bond Formation.- Electron Tranfer in the Hexamethylbenzene/Tetracyanoethylene Charge-Transfer Complex in the Supercritical Fluids.- Femtosecond IR Studies of Alkane C-H Bond Activation by Organometallic Compounds.- Ultrafast Reactions Involving Small Molecules in Solutions.- Photophysics and Photochemistry of the Solvated Electron in Higher Alcohols and Excited State Inertial Dynamics of the Hydrated Electron.- Ultrafast Infrared Study of the UV Photodissociation of Mn2(CO)10.- Ultrafast Vibrational Relaxation and Ligand Photodissociation/Photoassociation Processes of Nickel(II) Porphyrins in Condensed Phase.- Formation of Diphenylacetylene Following the Photodissociation of Diphenylcyclopropenone in Solution.- Transient Product Vibrational Population Distribution in the Femtosecond Photodissociation of Triiodide.- Ultrafast Study of the Photodissociation and Recombination of Aqueous O3-.- Solvent Effects on the Ultrafast Dynamics of Chlorine Dioxide Photochemistry.- The Reflection of Predissociation Dynamics in Pump/Probe Photoelectron Distributions.- Femtosecond VIS and IR Spectroscopy of the Photoisomerisation of the Protonated Schiff Base of Retinal.- Comparison of the Photochemical Ring Opening of Cyclohexadiene and Dehydrocholesterol in Solution, Studied by Ultrafast Absorption Spectroscopy.- The Photochemical Dynamics of Trans-1,3,5-Hexatriene in Solution Investigated by the Ultrafast Transient Absorption Spectroscopy.- First Example of Ultrafast Photoisomerisation-Like Photophysics for Tetrapyrrol Systems: Ethylene-Bridged Porphyrin Dimers.- Femtosecond Studies of Isomerization and Energy Relaxation in Small Polyenes.- Ultrafast Photophysics and Stimulated Emission from Novel Conjugated Polymers and Blends.- Molecular ATI and ATD with Femtosecond Laser Pulses.- Primary Ultrafast Events in the Proton Transfer Reaction from Excited Pyranine to Water.- Chemical Reaction Observed by Ultrafast X-Ray Absorption.- IX Dynamics in the Condensed Phase.- Phase-Locked Femtosecond Photon Echo: A New Dimension in Ultrafast Spectroscopy.- Coherent and Incoherent Dynamics of Large Molecules in Solution Studied on a 20 Femtosecond Time Scale.- Femtosecond Studies of Exciton Dynamics in a Novel Optically Active Conjugated Polymer.- "Bubble" Dynamics Following Rydberg State Excitation in Rare Gas Matrices.- Electronic and Vibrational Dephasing in Solution by Dynamic Symmetry Breaking.- Comparison of Spontaneous and Impulsive Stimulated Resonance Raman Excitation Profiles.- New Advances in Measuring Hydrogen Bonding Dynamics.- Vibrational Phase and Energy Relaxation of the Cyanide Ion in Water.- Temperature-Dependence of the Ultrafast Intermolecular Dynamics of Amides: Formamide, N-Methylformamide, N,N-Dimethylformamide, N-Methylacetamide, and N-Methylpropionamide from 290-370 K.- Temporally One- and Two-Dimensional Spectroscopies on Overtone Vibrational Dephasing of Liquids.- Femtosecond IR Studies of Solvation by Probing the Solvent.- Time-Domain Observation of Nuclear Vibrational Motion in Glasses.- Temperature-Dependent Dynamics of CS2: An OHD-RIKES Study.- Femtosecond Analysis of the Spinning Motion of Liquid Crystal Molecules in Smectic A Phases.- X Energy and Electron Transfer in Photosynthesis.- Excitation Transfer and Trapping in Photosynthesis.- Elementary Excitation in Photosynthetic Purple Bacteria: How Big Is It?.- Polarized Pump Probe Spectroscopy on the LH-1 Antenna of Rhodopseudomonas viridis at Room Temperature.- Excited State Dynamics and Exciton Derealization in Photosynthetic Light Harvesting Complexes at Low Temperature.- Femtosecond Dynamics Within the B820 Dimeric Subunit from the Core Antenna Complex of Rs. rubrum.- Level-to Level Electronic Energy Transfers in a Bacteriochlorophyll ? - Protein Antenna Complex.- Inertial Protein-Matrix Solvation of a Light-Harvesting Chromophore.- Femtosecond Infrared Studies of Photosynthetic Reaction Centers: New Charge Transfer Bands and Ultrafast Energy Redistribution.- The Primary Electron Transfer in Bacterial Reaction Centers with Altered Energetics of the Primary Acceptor.- Adiabetic Electron Transfer in Photosynthetic Reaction Centers-Fiction or Reality?.- Intermediates in Energy Transfer and Electron Transfer in Reaction Centers of Purple Bacteria.- Optical Coherence and Anisotropy Studies of the First Events in Photosynthesis.- Energy Tranfer in the Photosynthetic Reaction Center.- Primary Processes in Heliobacteria Studied by Selective Excitation of Pigments.- Primary Charge Separation in Photosystem II.- Observation of an Intermediate Step During Primary Charge Separation by Photosystem Two.- Quantum Beats in the Reaction Center of Photosystem II.- XI Ultrafast Processes in Chromoproteins: Ligand Dynamics, Relaxation and Isomerisation.- The Primary Processes in Heme Protein Relaxation: The Coupled Reaction Coordinate Problem in Molecular Cooperativity.- New Features in the Ultrafast Ligand Dynamics and Energy Dissipation in Myoglobin.- Ultrafast Photoisomerization of Retinal in Bacteriorhodopsin: A New Twist.- A Comparative Study of the Initial Photoinduced Event in Bacteriorhodopsin: Can It Be Isomerization?.- A Femtosecond Absorption Study of Urocanic Acid.- Time Resolved Electron Transfer Studies Between Metallointercalators in DNA.- Charge-Transfer Dynamics in Blue Copper Proteins: Experiment and Simulation.- XII Coherent Spectroscopy of Semiconductors.- Femtosecond Coherent Spin Control in Quantum Wells.- Coherent Excitation of Megnetoexciton Wavepackets.- Ultrafast Coherent Spin Torques in Magnetic Quantum Wells.- Spin Quantum Beats in Bulk and Low Dimensional Semiconductors.- Magnetic Field Dependence of Exciton Spin Dynamics in GaAs Quantum Wells.- Spin Repolarization in Interacting Exciton Gas.- Photocarrier Relaxation in the Quantum Kinetics Regime.- Ultrafast Ellipsometry of Coherent Processes and Exciton-Exciton Interactions in Semiconductors.- Coupled Bloch-Phonon Oscillations in Superlattices.- Heavy-Light Hole Quantum Beats in the Band-to-Band Continuum of Bulk GaAs Studied in 20 fs Pump-Probe Experiments.- Enhanced Radiative Decay and Optical Dephasing of Excitons in GaAs Quantum Well Bragg Structures.- Coherent THz Plasmons in GaAs Schottky Diodes.- Observation of Coherent Local Surface Phonons on Clean GaAs Surfaces.- XIII Ultrafast Processes in Semiconductors and Solids.- Inter-Subband Scattering and Thermalization of Electrons in Quantum Wells Studied with Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Pulses.- Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Spectroscopy of Intersubband Hot Hole Relaxation in Quantum Wells.- Sub-Picosecond Far-Infrared Transient-Grating Measurements of Electron Cooling in InAs and GaSb.- Hot Electron Reaction Dynamics at GaAs(100) Surface Quantum Wells.- Ultrafast Gain in Semiconductors.- Femtosecond Kinetics of Freely Relaxing Non-Fermi Carrier Distributions in GaAs.- Determination of the Electron Mobility in Multiple Quantum Wells by Time-Resolved Optical Measurements.- Ultrafast Excitation and Deexcitation of Local Vibrational Modes in a Solid Matrix: The Si-H Bond in Amorphous Silicon.- Femtosecond Carrier Spin Dynamics in CdTe/Cd0.6Mn0.4Te Quantum Wells.- Spin Dynamics in Ferromagnetic Nickel Films.- Saturation of the Two-Photon Absorption in CdS.- Femtosecond Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing in a 350 ?m Undoped InP at Far Below Band Gap.- XIV Microcavities and Dots.- Coherence Transfer in Exciton-Exciton Scattering in a Semiconductor Microcavity.- Ultrafast Oscillations in the Optical Emission from a Semiconductor Microcavity.- Carrier Relaxation Dynamics in Strain-Induced InGaAs Quantum Dots.- Ultrafast Dephasing Dynamics and Multi-Level Electronic Structure of InP Nanocrystals.- Size Dependent Absorption Anisotropy Measurements of CdSe Nanocrystals: Symmetry Assignments for the Lowest Electronic States.- Interfacial Electron Transfer in Dye Sensitised Nanocrystalline TiO2 Films.- Ultrafast Ionization Dynamics in Laser-Driven Clusters.- Ultrafast Line-Broadening of the Surface Plasmon in Au-Colloids Embedded in a Dielectric Sol-Gel Matrix.- Confinement Effects on the Electron Thermalization Process in Tin Nanocrystals.- Quasi-Zero-Dimensional Media Formed by Thin-Film Technique: Microstructure, Subpicosecond Optical Nonlinearities, Applications.- XV Metals and Surfaces.- Femtosecond Studies of Electron Dynamics in Two Dimensions.- Time-Resolved Two-Color Photoelectron Spectroscopy at Bare and Adsorbate Covered Metal Surfaces.- Hot-Electron Dynamics at Cu Surfaces.- Applications of Femtosecond Lasers to Nonlinear Spectroscopy and Process Control of Si(001) Interfaces.- Surface Second Harmonic Generation from the Si/SiO2 Interface Using 10 fs Pulses.- Ultrafast Surface Reaction and Desorption Probed by Femtosecond Second Harmonic Generation: Cl Etching of Si(111) Surface.- Laser-Induced Softening of Coherent Phonons: Pathway to Nonthermal Melting.- Ultrafast Nonlinearity of Metallic Indium Across the Liquid-Solid Transition.- Electron-Lattice Heating from Avalanche Ionization in Silicon with Near Infrared Ultrafast Laser Pulses.- Femtosecond Melting Rates of Crystalline and Amorphous Column IV Elements.- Index of Contributors.