This volume is a collection of papers presented at the Twelfth International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena held at Charleston, SC, from July 9 to 13, 2000. The Ultrafast Phenomena Conferences are held every two years and provide a forum for discussion of the latest results in ultrafast optics and their applications in science and engineering. A total of more than 200 papers was presented, reporting progress in the technology of generating and characterizing ultrashort pulses, including new techniques for shortening the duration of laser pulses, for stabilizing their absolute phase, and for improving tunability over broad wavelength ranges, output powers and peak intensities. Ultrafast spectroscopy, including techniques like time-resolved X-ray diffrac tion and two-dimensional spectroscopy, continues to give new insights into fundamental processes in physics, chemistry and biology. Control and opti mization of the outcome of ultrafast processes represent another important field of research. There is an increasing number of applications of ultrafast techniques, for instance in material diagnostics and processing and in imag ing and microscopy. The enthusiasm of the participants, among them many students, the high quality of the papers and the nice conference site made the conference successful and pleasant.
Provides a summary of the current status of ultrafast spectroscopy, facilitating rapid access to the field
Gives an overview of all the groups working in this fieldInhalt
I: Coherent Control.- The Odyssey of Kent Wilson: Holding Molecules in the Light.- The Kent Wilson Group in the 1990s.- Algorithms for Closed Loop Ultrafast Control of Quantum Dynamics.- Control of Quantum Dynamics by Adaptive Femtosecond Pulse Shaping.- Optimal Control of Two-Photon Transitions: Bright and Dark Femtosecond Pulses Designed by a Self-Learning Algorithm.- Feedback Optimization of Molecular States Using a Parametrization in Frequency and Time Domain.- Controlling and Probing Impulsively Induced Ground State Vibrational Dynamics.- Dynamics and Coherent Control of Condensed Phase Vibrational Coherences.- Spatiotemporal Coherent Control.- Coherent Control and Nonlinear Interactions of Semiconductor Cavity Polaritons.- Coherent Control of XUV Radiation.- Enhancement of k? Yield from Femtosecond Laser Produced Plasmas by Automated Control of Plasma Parameters.- II: Lasers for Ultrashort Pulses.- Challenges and Limitations on Generating Few Cycle Laser Pulses Directly from Oscillators.- Extremely Flexible and Accurate Chirp-Compensation for 75-MHz Repetitive Glass-Fiber Output of a More-Than 100-THz Bandwidth: Generation of a-Few4Optical-Cycle Transform-Limited Pulses.- 14-fs Pulses at 1.3-µm Generated from an All-Solid-State Cr:Forsterite Laser.- Smooth Dispersion Compensation: Novel Chirped Mirrors with Suppressed Dispersion Oscillations.- Dispersion Management over one Octave with Tilted-Front-Interface Chirped Mirrors.- A Prism-Pair-Formed Pulse Shaper Compresses Optical Pulses to the 6 fs Regime.- Correcting the Failure of the Slowly Varying Amplitude Approximation for Short Pulses.- Precise Control of the Pulse-to-Pulse Carrier-Envelope Phase in a Mode-Locked Laser.- Carrier Envelope Offset Phase Stabilization for Few-Cycle Nonlinear Optics.- Sub-10 fs Light Pulses with Stabilized Carrier-Envelope Phase: Optical Waveform Synthesis.- Frequency Domain Control of Femtosecond Pulse Trains with Fabry-Perot Reference Cavities for Optical Frequency Metrology.- Nonlinear Optcal Method for Determining the Absolute Carrier Phase of a Laser Pulse.- Generation of Relativistic Intensity Pulses at 300 Hz Repetition Rate.- Reflection Double Pass Ti:Sapphire Continuous-Wave Amplifier Delivering 5.77 W Average Power, 82 MHz Repetition Rate, 100 fs Pulse.- Chirped Pulse Amplification for Ultraviolet Femtosecond Pulses Using Ce:LiCAF Crystal.- Parabolic Pulses from Yb:Fiber Amplifiers: A New Paradigm for High Power Ultrashort Pulse Generation.- Generation, Amplification and Characterization of Tunable Visible Ultrashort Shaped Pulses.- Synthesis of Supershort UV Pulses Using Phase-Locked Raman Side-Band Generation.- Generation and Measurement of Ultrafast Tunable VUV Light.- III: Pulse Characterization, Shaping and Measurement Techniques.- Autocorrelation Measurement of Femtosecond Optical Pulses Using Two-Photon-Induced Photocurrent in a Photomultiplier Tube.- Precision and Accuracy of Ultrashort Optical Pulse Measurement Using SPIDER.- Highly Simplified Ultrashort Pulse Measurement.- Time-Gated FROG: A New Technique for Studying the Build-Up of Optical Pulse Field in Mode-Locked Ultrafast Lasers.- Measuring the Intensity and Phase of Ultrabroadband Continuum.- Amplitude and Phase Measurement of Mid-IR Femtosecond Pulses Using XFROG.- Rapid Retrieval of Ultrashort Pulse Amplitude and Phase from a Sonogram Trace.- Simultaneous Two-Dimensional Space and Time Measurement of Ultrashort Optical Pulses Based on Spatial Spectral Interferometry.- Reliability of Fourier-Transform Spectral Interferometry.- Direct Measurement of Spectral Phase of Femtosecond Pulses Using Optical Parametric Effect.- Ultrashort Pulse Characterization by Frequency Resolved Pump Probe.- Attosecond Cross Correlation Technique.- Unbalanced Multiphoton Autocorrelation Techniques for fs Pulse Measurements in the Near IR.- Unbalanced Third-Order Correlations for Characterizing the Intensity and Phase of Femtosecond Pulses.- Spectral Phase Correlator for Coded Waveform Recognition Using Second Harmonic Generation.- Femtosecond Nonlinear Polarization Evolution from Cascade Quadratic Processes.- Femtosecond Polarization Detection Using High-Speed Pulse Shaping.- Tunable Third-Order Dispersion of a Prismatic Pulse Compressor.- Nonlinear Dispersion Properties of Sub-Wavelength Photonic Crystals.- Carrier-Induced Optical Pulse Shaping in a Semiconductor Nonlinear Bragg Reflector.- 20-fs Pulse Shaping with a 512-Element Phase only Liquid Crystal Modulator.- Coherently Controlled Shaping of Ultrafast Electric-Field Transients in the Mid-Infrared.- Spatial Replenishment and Self-Focusing Dynamics of Ultrashort Laser Pulses.- Femtosecond Pulse Propagation in Optical Fibers.- Microcavity-Enhanced Surface-Emitted Second-Harmonic Generation for Signal Processing in the ps and fs Regimes.- Femtosecond Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy Utilizing Optical Kerr Shutter: Direct Observation of a Temporal Fluorescence Band Shape.- IV: THz Generation and Measurement.- An intense Broadband Terahertz Source Based on a Novel Four-Wave Rectification Process.- THz Generation by Photo-Ionization of Electrically Biased Air.- Coherent THz Emission from Optically Pumped Intersubband Plasmons in Parabolic Quantum Wells.- Narrow-Band Terahertz Wavetrains Generated by Optical Rectification in Periodically-Poled Lithium Niobate.- Optimum Geometrical Conditions for Femtosecond Laser Irradiated Magnetic-Field Enhanced THz Radiation In As Emitter and its Saturation Effect in High-Magnetic Field.- Tunable Coherent far Infrared Radiation Emission from Biased Semiconductor Microcavities.- Amplitude and Phase Resolved Detection of Tunable Femtosecond Pulses with Frequency Components Beyond 100 THz.- Ultrabroadband Detection of THz Radiation by LT-GaAs Photoconductive Antenna Gated with 15-fs Pulses.- A Simple Terahertz Spectrometer.- Ultrafast Applications of THz Waveguides.- Variable Angle Impulse Ranging and Image Reconstruction of Dielectric Cylinders.- Dielectric Property Measurement of Sub-Micron Thin Film by Differential Time-Domain Spectroscopy.- Excitation Dynamics Beyond the Slowly Varying Envelope Approximation.- THz-Pulse Studies of Superluminal Propagation in Frustrated Total Internal Teflection.- V: Imaging and Microscopy.- Optical Coherence Tomography for Biomedical Imaging.- Ultrahigh Resolution OCT Using Continuuum Generation in an Air-Silica Microstructure Optical Fiber.- Intracellular Water Diffusion Probed by Femtosecond Nonlinear CARS Microscopy.- Ultrafast Near-Field Pump-Probe Spectroscopy of Quasi-One-Dimensional Transport in a Single Quantum Wire.- Femtosecond Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy of Molecular Thin Films.- Background-Free THz Imaging Using Interferometric Tomography.- Diagnosis of Dental Cavity and Osteoporosis Using Terahertz Transmission Images.- VI: X-Ray Generation and Diffraction, Higher Harmonics, High Intensity Physics.- Femtosecond X-Ray Pulses from a Synchrotron.- Direct Observation of Ultrafast Non-Thermal Melting by Ultrafast X-Ray Diffraction.- Time-Resolved X-Ray Diffraction Study of Ultrafast Acoustic Phonon Dynamics in Ge/Si Heterostructures.- Picosecond Time-Resolved X-Ray Diffraction from a Silicon Crystal under Laser-Induced Breakdown.- Time-Resolved X-Ray Measurements of Polaron Dynamics of Charge-Ordered Nd1/2Sr1/2MnO3.- High-Order harmonic Generation in the Few-Optical Cycle Regime: Spectral Characteristics and Modeling.- Nonadiabatic Self-Phase Matching of High Harmonic Generation.- Diffraction Limited Emission of High Order Harmonics from Solid Surfaces.- Femtosecond Time-Resolved Luminescence Spectroscopy of Inner-Shell Excitation by High-Order Harmonics.- Femtosecond X-Ray Fluorescence from Light Elements Excited by Laser Harmonics.- Emission of Highly-Charged Ions of Heavy Elements from a Picosecond Laser-Produced Plasma.- Evanescent-Wave Acceleration of Ultrashort Electron Pulses.- Pulse Compression in Plasma: Generation of Femtosecond Pulses without CPA.- Dynamic Stark Effect in Rydberg NO Induced by Intense Laser Pulses.- Ultrafast Transient Grating Study of Molecules After High Intensity Excitation.- VII: Ultrafast Dynamics of Atoms, Molecules and Clusters in the Gas Phase.- Stepwise Electron Emission from Autoionizing Magnesium Stark States.- Centrifugal Dissociation of a Molecule Using the Optical Centrifuge.- State-Selective Rotational Coherence Spectroscopy by Two-Color Pump-Probe Schemes.- Vibrational Revivals in the Iodine B-State from Femtosecond Fluocescence Interference Noise.- Untangling ?-?* /n-?* Orbital Interactions via Ultrafast Time-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy.- Change of Ultrafast Ammonia Cluster Dynamics by a Femtosecond Infrared Control Pulse.- Observation of the Lorentz Local Field in a Dense Atomic Vapor Using Transient Spectroscopy.- VIII: Ultrafast Processes in Semiconductors.- Resonant Rayleigh Scattering from Semiconductor Nanostructures: Ultrafast Spectral Interferometry.- Radiative Interwell Coupling of hh-,lh-Excitons, and Correlated Electron-Hole Pairs in Multiple Quantum Well Bragg Samples.- Highly Energetic Excitons in GaAs Studied via Femtosecond Transmission Spectroscopy.- Ultrafast Electro-Absorption at the Transition Between Classical and Quantum Response.- Sub-Picosecond Dynamics of the Photo-Induced Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect in CdTe at Room Temperature.- Femtosecond Optical Time-of-Flight Measurement of the Electron Velocity in GaN.- Femtosecond Intersubband Dynamics of Holes in P-Type Si1-xGex/Si Multiple Quantum Wells.- Femtosecond Mid-Infrared Study of Electron Dynamics in Self-Organized InAs Quantum Wires on InA1As/InP (001).- Size and Surface Dependence of Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics in CdSe Quantum Dots Determined by Fluorescence Upconversion Spectroscopy.- Investigation of Phase Change in Ge2Sb2Te5 Films by Coherent Phonon Spectroscopy.- Generation of Coherent LO Phonons in GaAs/AIGaAs MQWs by the Impulsive Stimulated Raman Scattering.- Observation of Coherent Confined LO Phonons in 70Ge/74Ge Isotope Superlattices.- Effect of Lattice Defects on LO Phonon-Plasmon Coupled Modes in n-GaAs.- Ultrafast THz Conductivity Dynamics: Spin-Lattice Relaxation in Colossal Magnetoresistive Oxides.- X: Electron Dynamics and Charge Transfer at Interfaces and in Liquids.- Femtosecond Electron Dynamics at Surfaces and Interfaces.- Spectral Sensitization, Supersensitization and Ultrafast Exciton Migration on AgBr Semiconductor Surface.- Ultrafast Interfacial Charge Separation from the Singlet and Triplet MLCT States of Ru(bpy)2(dcbpy) Adsorbed on Nanocrystalline SnO2 under Applied Bias.- Femtosecond IR Study of Ultrafast Electron Injection in Nanocrystalline Thin Film Electrodes.- Unique Curve Crossing and Vibrational Wavepacket Behavior of Femtosecond Heterogeneous Electron Transfer.- Surface States Control Ultrafast Electron Injection in Dye/Semiconductor Collodial Systems.- THz Pump-Probe Measurements of Electrons in Nonpolar Liquids.- Photon-Echo Spectroscopy ofthe Hydrated Electron with 5-fs Pulses.- Ultrafast Thermalization Dynamics of Hot Photoelectrons Injected into Water.- Mid-IR Detection of a Precursor to the Prehydrated Electron.- Novel fs-Precursors of Solvated Electrons in Water in the MIR: A Charge Transfer Process.- Femtosecond Study of Electron Photo Detachment from Complex Anions: Fe(CN)4+6 and CuBr-2 in H2O.- Femtosecond Studies of the Charge-Transfer-to-Solvent Transition of the Sodium Anion in THF.- (Sub)picosecond Time-Resolved Fluorescence Depolarization of OLED Compounds Alq3, Gaq3, and Inq3.- Investigation of the Ultrafast Dynamics of Charge Recombination of Ion Pairs Using Multiplex Transient Grating Spectroscopy.- Ultrafast Adiabatic Electron Transfer Cooperated with Exciplex Formation Induced by Strong Interaction Between Donor and Acceptor at Short Distances.- Femtosecond Multicolor Pump-Probe Investigation of Ultrafast Electron Transfer of (NH3)5RuIIINCRuII(CN)-5 in Solution.- Ultrafast Solvent-Induced Charge Localization in Tris-(2,2-Bipyridine) Ruthenium(II).- XI: Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy.- Structural Dynamics of Small Peptides by Time Dependent 2D-IR spectroscopy.- Frequency Resolved and Heterodyned Femtosecond Infrared Echoes of Peptides: Multiple Pulse Coherent Vibrational Analogues of NMR.- Nonlinear Two-Dimensional IR Spectroscopy of Unfolding Processes in ß-Peptides.- Diffractive Optics Based 2-Colour Six Wave Mixing: Heterodyne Detection of the Fifth-Order Raman Response of Liquids.- Polarized and Magic Angle Fifth-Order 2D Electronically Non-Resonant Raman Scattering from CS2.- Separating the Direct and Cascaded Contributions to Two-Dimensional Signals Using Phase-Sensitive Detection.- Time Dependent 2D Fourier Transform Spectra Reveal Femtosecond Solvation Dynamics.- Two-Dimensional Time-Resolved THz Spectroscopy of Solvent Response to Photoexcitation.- XII: Dynamics in Liquids.- Ultrafast Intermolecular Transfer of Vibrational Excitations in Liquid Water.- Time and Frequency-Gated FID: A New Approach to Study the Vibrational Dephasing of Water.- Observation of the Bose Peak in Nanometer-Sized Liquid Water Clusters Using Terahertz Spectroscopy.- Interaction of Terawatt Laser Pulses with Neat Water.- Picosecond Infrared Spectroscopy of Carboxylic Acid Dimers in Liquid Solution and Water-in-Oil Microemulsions.- Ultrafast Coherent Response of Hydrogen Bonds.- Phase-Sensitive Detection for Polarization-Selective Femtosecond Raman Spectroscopy.- Studies of the Third and Fifth Order Nonlinear Susceptibilities of Optical Materials Using Femtosecond Transient Absorption Spectroscopy.- Nuclear Dynamics in the Ground and Excited Electronic States for a Molecule in Liquid.- Ultrafast Solute Vibrational Spectral Evolution During the Solvation Process.- Separating Inertial and Diffusive Rotation and Solvation for a Nonpolar Solute.- Solute Dependence of Three Pulse Photon Echo Peak Shift Measurement.- Ultrafast Dynamics in DNA.- Femtosecond Photophysics of DNA and RNA Nucleosides in Aequeous Solution.- Investigation of Coherent Dynamics in Charge-Transfer Reaction of Plastocyanin.- XIII: Polymers, Aggregates, and Macromolecular Systems.- Vibrational Dynamics in Molecules and Polymers Revealed by Sub-5-fs Real-Rime Spectroscopy.- Early Events in the Photoexcitation of ?-Conjugated Chains Studied with Sub-10-fs Time Resolution.- Direct Probe of Spectrally Line-Narrowed Emission from Cooperative Optical State in ?-Conjugated Polymeric Thin Films.- Mapping of Molecular Docking of Organic Cations on Negatively Charged Polymers by Picosecond Time Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy.- Direct Observation of the Ultrafast Electron Transfer Process in a Polymer/Fullerene Blend.- The Controlled Coherent Excitation of Vibrational Modes in the Electronic Ground State of Polydiacetylenes.- Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Collective Electronic and Nuclear Modes in Conjugated Systems.- Theoretical Investigation of the Excited States Dynamics of the Polydiacetylene Backbone.- Ultrafast Energy Relaxation Processes of Long Molecular Wires Based on Zinc(II)porphyrines.- Dynamic Intensity Borrowing in Porphyrin J-Aggregates Revealed by Sub-5 fs Spectroscopy.- Wavepacket Motion of Self-Trapped Exciton under Excitation by Femtosecond Chirped Pulses in One-Dimensional Metal Dimethyl-Glyoxime Complex.- Energy Funneling in the Dendrimeric Nanostar Probed by Time-Resolved Nonlinear Spectroscopies.- Ultrafast Investigations of Intramolecular Interactions and Energy Transfer in Dendrimers and Polymeric Materials.- Systematic Fluorescence Upconversion Investigation of Intramolecular Processes in Peryleneimide Dendrimers Containing One to Four Chromophors.- XIV: Ultrafast Chemistry.- Experimental and Theoretical Study of Chirped Pulse Excitation.- Probing CTTS Dynamics of Na- in THF: Novel Relaxation and Polarization Effects.- The Ultrafast Dissociation Dynamics of Iodine Embedded in Microporous Crystalline Porosils of Different Structure.- Ultrafast Dynamics in ClO2 and ClO2(H2O)n Excited at 398 nm.- Vibrational Mode-Specific Ultrafast Photodissociation Dynamics of Chlorine Dioxide in Solution.- Ultrafast Infrared Studies of Ligand Rearrangement at Coordinatively Unsaturated Transition Metal Centers.- Ultrafast Fragmentation Dynamics of the Dicarbonyl(cyclopentadienyl)iron Halides.- Time-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Excited State Intramolecular Proton Transfer Dynamics.- Does the Proton Move During Ultrafast Excited State Intramolecular Proton Transfer?.- Direct Observation of Ultrafast Excited State Dynamics in Condensed Phase Photochemistry and Photobiology.- XV: Biology.- Disorder in Photosynthetic Light Harvesting Complexes: A Three-Pulse Photon Echo Peak Shift Study of the B800 Band of the LH2 Complex.- Highly Unusual Growing-in of Coherence and Strong Oscillations in the Bacterial FMO Antenna Complexes Observed in Photon Echo Kinetics.- Time-Dependent Exciton Delocalization Size in the B850 Band of Purple Bacterial LH2.- The Kinetics of Primary Electron Transfer Steps in PS I Reaction Centers.- Ultrafast Charge Separation in the Plant Photosystem I Reaction Center.- Direct Observation of the S1 Level of the Carotenoid Spheroidene Using Near-Infrared Femtosecond Spectroscopy.- Femtosecond-Transient Absorption and Fluorescence Upconversion after Two-Photon Excitation of Carotenoids in Solution and in LHC II.- Quantitative Modeling of Ultrafast Energy Transfer Dynamics in the Photosynthetic Apparatus.- Primary Reactions of Sensory Rhodopsins: Two Proteins with Vastly Different Dynamics.- Femtosecond Spectrosopcy and Model Calculations for an Understanding of the Primary Reaction in Bacteriorhodopsin.- Resolving the Primary Dynamics of Bacteriorhodopsin and Locked Analogs in the Reactive Excited States.- Coherent Infrared Emission from Myoglobin Crystals.- Femtosecond Fluorescence Dynamics of Porphyrins; Internal Conversion, Energy Relaxation and Quantum Beats.- Femtosecond Pump-Probe Studies of Radiationless Decay Dynamics in Anthropod and Mollusc Hemocyanins.- Initial Conformational Dynamics in Cyclic Azobenzene Peptides.- Index of Contributors.