Nutraceutical Fatty Acids from Oleaginous Microalgae

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Description

Over the past several years, extensive research has been done on the microbial production of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Regardless, research on the oleaginous microalgae used as feedstock for biofuels production and the overall story about the production of nutraceutical fatty acids from oleaginous microalgae has been very limited. This volume provides an exclusive insight on the production of nutraceutical fatty acids from oleaginous microalgae and their role on human health.

Some saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids can be synthesized by humans, whereas long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid cannot and are deemed essential. The products of these acids, such as DHA, which is important for early visual and neurological development, are extremely important to human health. Replacing SFAs with omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the diet reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and prevent Alzheimer's, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia, among other benefits.

The ever-rising global demand for omega-3 & 6 PUFAs, however, cannot be met solely by fish oil, due to diminishing fish stocks and pollution of marine ecosystems, which has led to increased interest in alternative sustainable sources. Vegetable oils from genetically engineered plant oilseeds and microorganisms are two potential alternatives to fish oil, even though omega-3 PUFAs are highest in the latter. Although transgenic plants present numerous advantages, their production is dependent on seasonal and climatic conditions and the availability of arable land. Moreover, there are public concerns regarding the cultivation of transgenic crops in open ecosystems. These, together with regulatory issues restrict the large-scale production of genetically modified crops. Microorganisms, however, are known natural producers of microbial oils similar to those obtained from plants and animals and a possible source of nutritionally important omega-3 & 6 PUFAs.

This groundbreaking volume presents invaluable new research on essential fatty acids, their production from various oleaginous microorganisms, biochemical and metabolic engineering to improve PUFAs content in oil, extraction and purification of omega 3 fatty acids, and the current market scenario. Whether a veteran engineer or scientist using it as a reference or a professor using it as a textbook, this outstanding new volume is a must-have for any engineer or scientist working in food science.



Auteur

Alok Kumar Patel, PhD, is working as a senior researcher in Biochemical Process Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Lulea, Sweden to produce nutraceuticals from oleaginous microalgae. He finished his master's degree in biotechnology in 2011 and joined as a research assistant in Food Borne Infection Surveillance Unit, (Global Disease Detection India Center) CDC, USA in collaboration with National Center for Disease Control, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India. He got his PhD in Biotechnology from IIT Roorkee in 2017. His research interest is mainly focused on the development of biotechnological processes for conversion of organic matter to bioenergy, biofuels and biochemicals, process optimization, pretreatment of biomass, nutraceuticals and value-added products from microorganisms, and biorefineries.

Leonidas Matsakas, PhD, is working as an assistant professor in the Biochemical Process Engineering group at Luleå University of Technology. He received his PhD in Biotechnology from the school of Chemical Engineering at National Technical University of Athens in 2015. After that, he joined the Biochemical Process Engineering group of LTU as postdoc fellow and later became senior lecturer at the same group. His research interest is focused on developing biomass biorefinery processes, inclusing establishing novel pretreatment and fractionation technologies for the fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass to cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin and the conversion of these streams to biofuels, biobased chemicals and biomaterials via biochemical and thermochemical routes.

Texte du rabat

A critical text designed for microbiologists, biotechnologists, entrepreneurs, nutritionists, dietitians, clinicians and health-related professionals, Nutraceutical Fatty Acids from Oleaginous Microalgae presents an inclusive assessment of the current knowledge about the lab-scale and large-scale production of essential nutraceuticals from microalgae and their nutritional effects on human health.

Over the past several years, extensive research has been done on the microbial production of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Regardless, research on the oleaginous microalgae used as feedstock for biofuels production and the overall story about the production of nutraceutical fatty acids from oleaginous microalgae has been very limited. This volume provides an exclusive insight on the production of nutraceutical fatty acids from oleaginous microalgae and their role on human health.

Some saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids can be synthesized by humans, whereas long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as ??-linolenic acid and linoleic acid cannot and are deemed essential. The products of these acids, such as DHA, which is important for early visual and neurological development, are extremely important to human health. Replacing SFAs with omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the diet reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and prevent Alzheimer's, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia, among other benefits. The ever-rising global demand for omega-3 & -6 PUFAs, however, cannot be met solely by fish oil, due to diminishing fish stocks and pollution of marine ecosystems, which has led to increased interest in alternative sustainable sources.

This groundbreaking volume presents invaluable new research on essential fatty acids, their production from various oleaginous microorganisms, biochemical and metabolic engineering to improve PUFAs content in oil, extraction and purification of omega 3 fatty acids, and the current market scenario. Whether a veteran engineer or scientist using it as a reference or a professor using it as a textbook, this outstanding new volume is a must-have for any engineer or scientist working in food science.

This groundbreaking new volume:

  • Provides state-of-the-art information on synthetic biology approaches for oleaginous microalgae to produce nutraceutical fatty acids that allows scientists and researchers to study the dietary effects of individual trans fatty acids on human health
  • Describes the cultivation techniques of microalgae to support the synthesis of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids inside the cellular compartment
  • Discusses methods for the extraction and purification of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid from microalgae
  • Provides an overview of the renewable substrate for the cultivation of microalgae at the industrial level


Contenu

1 Introduction to Essential Fatty Acids 1
Alok Patel, Ulrika Rova, Paul Christakopoulos and Leonidas Matsakas

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Biosynthesis of PUFAs 4

1.3 Sources of Essential Fatty Acids and Daily Intake Requirement 5

1.4 Biological Role of Essential Fatty Acids 7

1.4.1 Effect on Cell Membrane Structure 7

1.4.2 Impact on Vision 9

1.4.3 Brain Function 9

1.4.4 Biosynthesis of Lipid Mediators 10

1.4.5 Effect of Omega Fatty Acids on the Regulation of Gene Expression 10

1.5 Effect of Essential Fatty Acid on Human Health (Disease Prevention and Treatment) 10

1.5.1 Neonatal Development 10

1.5.2 Gestation and Pregnancy 11

1.5.3 Cardiovascular Disease 11

1.5.4 Cancer Inhibition 12

1.5.5 Rheumatoid Arthritis 12

1.5.6 Effect on Suicide Risk in Mood Disorders 12

1.6 Concluding Remarks 12

References 13

2 Nutraceutical Fatty Acid Production in Marine Microalgae and Cyanobacteria 23
Anders K. Nilsson, Carlos Jiménez and Angela Wulff

2.1 Introduction 24

2.2 Fatty Acid Synthesis 26

2.3 Glycerolipid Synthesis and Lipid Accumulation 30

2.4 Current LC-PUFA Sources and the Potential Benefits of Using Marine Microalgae 32

2.5 Nutraceutical Fatty Acids in Marine Microalgae and Species of Interest 35

2.5.1 -Linolenic Acid (18:3 n-3, 9,12,15) 37

2.5.2 Stearidonic Acid (18:4 n-3, 6,9,12,15) 38

2.5.3 Eicosanoid Acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3, 5,8,11,14,17) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3, 4,7,10,13,16,19) 38

2.5.4 Docosapentaenoic Acid (22:5 n-3, 7,10,13,16,19) 39

2.5.5 -Linolenic Acid (18:3 n-6, 6,9,12) 40

2.5.6 Arachidonic Acid (20:4 n-6, 5,8,11,14) 41

2.6 Autotrophic and Heterotrophic Cultivation 42

2.7 Cultivation from Laboratory to Industrial Scale 43

2.8 Optimizing Growth Condition to Promote Lipid Accumulation and Desired FA Profiles 48

2.8.1 Temperature Effect 49

2.8.2 Irradiance 50

2.8.3 Growth Rate 52

2.8.4 Nitrogen and Phosphorous 52

2.8.5 Co2 53

2.8.6 Salinity 54

2.9 Genetic Engineering to Promote Lipid Accumulation and Tailoring of Fatty Acid Profiles 54

2.10 Conclusions 56

2.11 Acknowledgements 57

References 57

3 Production of PUFAs as Dietary and Health Supplements from Oleaginous Microalgae Utilizing Inexpensive Renewable Substrates 77
Dimitra Karageorgou, Georgios Bakratsas and Petros Katapodis

3.1 Introduction 78

3.2 PUFAs as Dietary and Health Supplements 79

3.3 Microalgae as Source of PUFAs 82

3.4 Systems for Microalgal Cultivation 89

3.5 Use of Alternative Substrates for Microalgal Growth 90

3.6 Factors that Affect the Heterotrophic and/or Mixotrophic Cultures 97

3.7 Conclusions 101

3.8 Future Perspectives 101

3.9 Acknowledgements 102

References 102

4 Lipid and Poly-Unsaturated Fatty Acid Production by Oleaginous Microorganisms Cultivated on Hydrophobic Substrates 115
Markella Tzirita, Bríd Quilty and Seraphim Papanikolaou

4.1 Lipid Production (Single Cell Oil) 116

4.2 Lipid Biodegradation and Synthesis 118

4.3 Hydrophobic Substrates 122

4.3.1 Waste Fats, Oils and Grease (FOG) 122

4.3.2 Olive-Mill Wastewater (OMW) 123

4.4 Oleaginous Microorganisms 124

4.5 Conclusions 127

References 136

5 Overview of Microbial Production of Omega-3-Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid 145
Farha Deeba, Kukkala Kiran Kumar and Naseem A. Gaur

5.1 Introduction 145

5.2 Microbial Sources of -3 PUFA 146

5.3 -3 PUFA Biosynthesis in Microbial Cells 149

5.3.1 Aero...

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Détails sur le produit

Titre
Nutraceutical Fatty Acids from Oleaginous Microalgae
Sous-titre
A Human Health Perspective
Auteur
EAN
9781119631743
Format
eBook (pdf)
Producteur
Wiley-Scrivener
Genre
Agriculture, horticulture, sylviculture, pêche, alimentation
Parution
15.06.2020
Protection contre la copie numérique
Adobe DRM
Taille de fichier
7.82 MB
Nombre de pages
368
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