Biofuels and Bioenergy

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Description

With increased public and scientific attention driven by factors such as oil price spikes, the need for increased energy security, and concerns over greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels, the production of fuels by biological systems is becoming increasingly important as the world seeks to move towards renewable, sustainable energy sources. Biofuels and Bioenergy presents a broad, wide-ranging and informative treatment of biofuels. The book covers historical, economic, industrial, sociological and ecological/environmental perspectives as well as dealing with all the major scientific issues associated with this important topic. With contributions from a range of leading experts covering key aspects, including: * Conventional biofuels. * Basic biology, biochemistry and chemistry of different types and classes of biofuel. * Current research in synthetic biology and GM in the development and exploitation of new biofuel sources. * Aspects relating to ecology and land use, including the fuel v food dilemma. * Sustainability of different types of biofuel. * Ethical aspects of biofuel production. Biofuels and Bioenergy provides students and researchers in biology, chemistry, biochemistry and chemical engineering with an accessible review of this increasingly important subject.



Auteur
About the Editors
John Love and John A. Bryant, Biosciences, College Of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, UK

Contenu

List of Contributors xiii

Preface xv

List of Abbreviations xix

1 Biofuels: The Back Story 1
John A. Bryant and John Love

Summary 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Some history 1

1.2.1 Wood and charcoal 1

1.2.2 Dung as fuel 2

1.2.3 Oils and fats 2

1.2.4 Peat 3

1.3 Fossil fuels 4

1.3.1 Coal 4

1.3.2 Petroleum Oil 5

1.3.3 Natural gas 6

1.4 Fossil fuels and Carbon Dioxide 6

1.4.1 The Club of Rome 6

1.4.2 Climate change 7

1.5 Alternative Energy Sources 9

1.5.1 Introduction 9

1.5.2 Environmental Energy Sources 9

1.5.3 Nuclear power 15

1.5.4 Hydrogen 17

1.6 Biofuels 18

Selected references and suggestions for further reading 19

2 Biofuels in Operation 21
Lionel Clarke

Summary 21

2.1 Fuels for Transport 21

2.2 Future Trends in Fuels Requirements and Technology 24

2.3 Engines and Fuels Progress vs Inertia 26

2.4 Engine Constraints, Fuel Specifications and Enhanced Performance 28

2.5 Biofuels Implications and Opportunities 32

2.5.1 Introduction 32

2.5.2 Ethanol 32

2.5.3 Biodiesel 33

2.6 Advanced Biofuels as Alternatives to Ethanol and FAME 37

2.7 Biofuels for Aviation; 'Biojet' 40

2.8 Impact of Future Trends in Engine Design on Retail Biofuels 42

2.9 Conclusion 43

Selected References and Suggestions for Further Reading 43

3 Anaerobic Digestion 45
John Bombardiere and David A. Stafford

Summary 45

3.1 History and Development of Anaerobic Digestion 45

3.1.1 Introduction 45

3.1.2 Mixtures of MicroOrganisms 46

3.2 Anaerobic Digestion: The Process 47

3.2.1 General Biochemistry 47

3.2.2 Design Types 47

3.2.3 Complete Mix Design 47

3.2.4 Plug Flow Digesters 48

3.2.5 High Dry Solids AD Systems 49

3.2.6 Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) 50

3.2.7 Anaerobic Filters 50

3.3 Commercial applications and benefits 51

3.3.1 In the United Kingdom 51

3.3.2 In the USA 51

3.3.3 In Germany 52

3.3.4 Overall Benefits 52

3.4 Ethanol Production Linked with Anaerobic Digestion 53

3.5 Financial and Economic Aspects 54

3.6 UK and US Government Policies and Anaerobic Digestion an overview 55

3.7 Concluding Comments 56

Selected References and Suggestions for Further Reading 57

4 Plant Cell Wall Polymers 59
Stephen C. Fry

Summary 59

4.1 Nature and Biological Roles of Primary and Secondary Cell Walls 59

4.2 Polysaccharide Composition of Primary and Secondary Cell Walls 60

4.2.1 Typical dicots 60

4.2.2 Differences in Certain Dicots 67

4.2.3 Differences in Monocots 67

4.2.4 Differences in Gymnosperms 68

4.2.5 Differences in Nonseed Landplants 68

4.2.6 Differences in Charophytes 68

4.3 Postsynthetic Modification of Cellwall Polysaccharides 70

4.3.1 C rosslinking of cellwall polysaccharides 70

4.3.2 Hydrolysis of Cellwall Polysaccharides 72

4.3.3 'Cutting and Pasting' (Transglycosylation) of Cellwall Polysaccharide Chains 75

4.4 Polysaccharide Biosynthesis 77

4.4.1 General Features 77

4.4.2 At the Plasma Membrane 77

4.4.3 In the Golgi System 78

4.4.4 Delivering the Precursors sugar Nucleotides 79

4.5 Nonpolysaccharide Components of the Plant Cell Wall 80

4.5.1 Extensins and Other (Glyco)Proteins 80

4.5.2 Polyesters 83

4.5.3 Lignin 84

4.5.4 Silica 84

4.6 Conclusions 85

Acknowledgements 85

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Détails sur le produit

Titre
Biofuels and Bioenergy
éditeur
EAN
9781118350546
ISBN
978-1-118-35054-6
Format
eBook (pdf)
Producteur
Wiley-Blackwell
Editeur
Wiley-Blackwell
Genre
Microbiologie
Parution
28.02.2017
Protection contre la copie numérique
Adobe DRM
Taille de fichier
16.4 MB
Nombre de pages
328
Année
2017
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