Handbook of Major Palm Pests

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Handbook of Major Palm Pests: Biology and Management contains the most comprehensive and up-to-date information on the red palm weevil and the palm borer moth, two newly emergent invasive palm pests which are adversely affecting palm trees around the world. It provides state-of-the-art scientific information on the ecology, biology, and management of palm pests from a global group of experts in the field.An essential compendium for anyone working with or studying palms, it is dedicated to the detection, eradication, and containment of these invasive species, which threaten the health and very existence of global palm crops.


Victoria Soroker is Senior Researcher in the Department of Entomology at Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Israel and a lecturer at Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Her work over 30 years involves both basic aspects of insect physiology, chemical ecology and behavior of several insects and mites as well as applied research towards development of integrated pest management practices. For the last 16 years much of her research efforts have focused around finding solution for detection and control of the date palm pest and especially red palm weevil. Over the years she has mentored graduate students and published widely in peer-reviewed journals. Currently she serves as a president of the Entomological Society of Israel.

Stefano Colazza is Professor at the Department of Agricultural and Forest Sciences at the University of Palermo, Italy. He is a specialist in infochemicals and behavioral ecology of plant, insect, herbivores and insect parasitoid interactions, with a special interest in the chemical ecology of plant volatile organic compounds in a tri-trophic context. He has been involved in these research areas for over 30 years and his work has been published widely in peer-reviewed journals. He is the co-editor of Chemical Ecology of Insect Parasitoids (Wiley-Blackwell, 2013).

Contributors xiii

Nomenclature xvii

Introduction xxi

1 Some Representative Palm Pests: Ecological and Practical Data 1
Laurence Beaudoin-Ollivier, Nunzio Isidoro, Josep A. Jaques, Paola Riolo, Mohamed Kamal and Didier Rochat

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 General Features About Palms and their Pests 2

1.3 Crown and Stem Borers 5

1.4 Defoliators of Fronds (= Leaves) 11

1.5 Sap and Frond (= Leaves) Feeders? 17

1.6 Inflorescence and Fruit Borers 20

1.7 Roots 27

1.8 Conclusion 28

References 29

2 Morphology and Physiology of Palm Trees as Related to Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and Paysandisia archon Infestation and Management 39
Yuval Cohen

2.1 Introduction 39

2.2 Palms in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin 39

2.3 Palm Morphology and Anatomy 41

2.4 The Palm Crown 42

2.5 The Structure of the Palm Stem 46

2.6 Conclusion 51

References 51

3 Economic and Social Impacts of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and Paysandisia archon on Palms 54
Alan MacLeod and Mohamud Hussein

3.1 Introduction 54

3.2 Ecosystem Services Provided by Palms 55

3.3 Impacts and Costs of Mitigation 61

3.4 Conclusion 63

References 64

4 Rhynchophorus ferrugineus: Taxonomy, Distribution, Biology, and Life Cycle 69
Didier Rochat, Oscar Dembilio, Josep A. Jaques, Pompeo Suma, Alessandra La Pergola, Rachid Hamidi, Dimitris Kontodimas and Victoria Soroker

4.1 Introduction 69

4.2 Taxonomy and Distribution 70

4.3 Biology and Host Plants 73

4.4 Life Cycle and Adaptation to the Temperate and Desert Areas 85

4.5 Conclusion 96

References 97

5 Rhynchophorus ferrugineus: Behavior, Ecology, and Communication 105
Ezio Peri, Didier Rochat, Gregor Belui!c, Marko Ili´c, Victoria Soroker, Shay Barkan, Salvatore Guarino, Paolo Lo Bue and Stefano Colazza

5.1 Introduction 105

5.2 Main Behaviors Involved in Species Dynamics 106

5.3 Chemical Cues 111

5.4 Vision and Visual Cues 119

5.5 Conclusion 124

References 125

6 Paysandisia archon: Taxonomy, Distribution, Biology, and Life Cycle 131
Nunzio Isidoro, Paola Riolo, Elisa Verdolini, Ezio Peri and Laurence Beaudoin-Ollivier

6.1 Introduction 131

6.2 Taxonomy of the Castniidae 131

6.3 Distribution of P. archon 133

6.4 Morphology of P. archon Stages 135

6.5 Biology 137

6.6 Conclusion 145

References 145

7 Paysandisia archon: Behavior, Ecology, and Communication 150
Brigitte Frérot, Rachid Hamidi, Nunzio Isidoro, Paola Riolo, Sara Ruschioni, Ezio Peri, Roberto Romani, Gregor Belui!c and Primo? Pirih

7.1 Introduction 150

7.2 P. archon Reproductive Behavior 151

7.3 Host-Finding and Chemical Cues 155

7.4 Visual Cues: Their Roles in Mate and Host Location 160

References 167

8 Natural Enemies of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and Paysandisia archon 171
Lola Ortega-García, Elisabeth Tabone, Laurence Beaudoin-Ollivier, Dana Ment, Maurane Buradino, Josep A. Jaques, Inmaculada Garrido-Jurado, Oscar Dembilio and Enrique Quesada Moraga

8.1 Introduction 171

8.2 Natural Enemies 172

8.3 Perspectives on Biological Control of R. ferrugineus and P. archon 180

References 181

9 Visual Identification and Characterization of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and Paysandisia archon Infestation 187
Dimitris Kontodimas, Victoria Soroker, Costas Pontikakos, Pompeo Suma, Laurence

Beaudoin-Ollivier, Filitsa Karamaouna and Paola Riolo

9.1 Introduction 187

9.2 Non-Pathognomonic Symptoms 188

9.3 Pathognomonic Symptoms 191

9.4 Identification of RPWIn...

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Handbook of Major Palm Pests
Biology and Management
eBook (epub)
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