Neurobiology of Motor Control

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A multi-disciplinary look at the current state of knowledge regarding motor control and movement from molecular biology to robotics The last two decades have seen a dramatic increase in the number of sophisticated tools and methodologies for exploring motor control and movement. Multi-unit recordings, molecular neurogenetics, computer simulation, and new scientific approaches for studying how muscles and body anatomy transform motor neuron activity into movement have helped revolutionize the field. Neurobiology of Motor Control brings together contributions from an interdisciplinary group of experts to provide a review of the current state of knowledge about the initiation and execution of movement, as well as the latest methods and tools for investigating them. The book ranges from the findings of basic scientists studying model organisms such as mollusks and Drosophila, to biomedical researchers investigating vertebrate motor production to neuroengineers working to develop robotic and smart prostheses technologies. Following foundational chapters on current molecular biological techniques, neuronal ensemble recording, and computer simulation, it explores a broad range of related topics, including the evolution of motor systems, directed targeted movements, plasticity and learning, and robotics. Explores motor control and movement in a wide variety of organisms, from simple invertebrates to human beings Offers concise summaries of motor control systems across a variety of animals and movement types Explores an array of tools and methodologies, including electrophysiological techniques, neurogenic and molecular techniques, large ensemble recordings, and computational methods Considers unresolved questions and how current scientific advances may be used to solve them going forward Written specifically to encourage interdisciplinary understanding and collaboration, and offering the most wide-ranging, timely, and comprehensive look at the science of motor control and movement currently available, Neurobiology of Motor Control is a must-read for all who study movement production and the neurobiological basis of movement from molecular biologists to roboticists.


SCOTT L. HOOPER, PhD, is a Professor in the Department of Biological Sciences at Ohio University and Visiting Professor at the University of Cologne.

ANSGAR BÜSCHGES, PhD, is Professor and Head of the Department of Animal Physiology at the University of Cologne. He has served as Dean of the University of Cologne's Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences and is a member of the Executive Committee of the German Neuroscience Society.


List of Contributors xiii

About the Cover xvii

1 Introduction 1
Ansgar Büschges and Scott L. Hooper

References 5

2 Electrophysiological Recording Techniques 7
Scott L. Hooper and Joachim Schmidt

2.1 Introduction 7

2.2 Terminology 8

2.3 Intracellular and Patch Clamp Recording 9

2.3.1 Recording Electrodes 9

2.3.2 Current-Clamp:Measuring Transmembrane Potential 12

2.3.3 Voltage Clamp: Measuring Transmembrane Current 15 Voltage Clamp with Transmembrane Potential as Reference 15 Voltage Clamp with Preparation (Bath) Ground as Reference 16

2.4 Extracellular Recording and Stimulation 17

2.5 A Brief History of Electrophysiological Recording 21

2.6 Concepts Important to Understanding Neuron Recording Techniques 27

2.6.1 Membrane Properties 27

2.6.2 Intracellular Recording 29

2.6.3 Extracellular Recording 32 Intracellular Action Potential Shape 33 Axon Embedded in Uniform, Infinite Volume Conductor 33 Variations in Extracellular Action Potential Shape Induced by Non-Uniform, Non-Infinite Volume Conductors 42 Bipolar Recording 44 Extracellular Action Potential Summary 46

Acknowledgements 47

References 47

3 Multi-Unit Recording 55
Arthur Leblois and Christophe Pouzat

3.1 Introduction 55

3.2 Chapter Organization and Expository Choices 56

3.3 Hardware 57

3.4 Spike Sorting Methods 60

Endnotes 69

References 70

4 The New Math of Neuroscience: Genetic Tools for Accessing and Electively Manipulating Neurons 75
Andreas Schoofs,Michael J. Pankratz, and Martyn Goulding

4.1 Introduction 75

4.2 Restricting Gene Expression to Specific Neurons 76

4.2.1 Promoter Bashing, Enhancer Trapping: Binary Systems for Targeted Gene Expression 77

4.2.2 Intersectional Strategies 81

4.2.3 Temporally Inducible Systems 82

4.3 Tracing, Manipulating, and Monitoring Neurons 84

4.3.1 Tracing Neuronal Projections and Connections with Fluorescent Reporters 84

4.3.2 Viral Tracers for Mapping Neural Connections 85

4.3.3 Manipulating Neuronal Function 87

4.3.4 Monitoring Neuronal Activity 90

4.4 Case Studies 92

4.5 Future Perspective 98

References 98

5 Computer SimulationPower and Peril 107
Astrid A. Prinz and Scott L. Hooper

5.1 Introduction 107

5.2 Why Model? 107

5.3 Modeling Approaches 110

5.4 Model Optimization and Validation 118

5.5 Beyond Purely ComputationalModels 120

5.6 Fundamental Concepts and Frequently Used Models in Motor Control 121

5.6.1 How to Predict the Future 121

5.6.2 Neuron Models 123

5.6.3 Synapse Models 127

5.6.4 Muscle Models 128

5.6.5 Biomechanical Models 128

5.7 The Future 129

Acknowledgements 130

References 130

6 Evolution of Motor Systems 135
Paul S. Katz and Melina E. Hale

6.1 Introduction 135

6.2 Phylogenetics 136

6.3 Homology and Homoplasy 138

6.4 Levels of Biological Organization 139

6.5 Homologous Neurons 139

6.6 Deep Homology 142

6.7 Homoplasy 145

6.8 Convergence in Central Pattern Generators 150

6.9 Evolutionary Loss 152

6.10 Evolution of Novel Motor Behaviors 152

6.11 Three Scenarios for the Evolution of Novel Behavior 154

6.11.1 Generalist Neural Circuitry 154

6.11.2 Rewired Circuitry 157

6.11.3 Functional Rewiring with Neuromodulation 159

6.12 Motor System Evolvability 161

6.13 Neuron Duplication and Parcella...

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Neurobiology of Motor Control
Fundamental Concepts and New Directions
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