Geostatistics Banff 2004

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The return of the congress to North America after 20 years of absence could not have been in a more ideal location. The beauty of Banff and the many offerings of the Rocky Mountains was the perfect background for a week of interesting and innovative discussions on the past, present and future of geostatistics. The congress was well attended with approximately 200 delegates from 19 countries across six continents. There was a broad spectrum of students and seasoned geostatisticians who shared their knowledge in many areas of study including mining, petroleum, and environmental applications. You will find 119 papers in this two volume set. All papers were presented at the congress and have been peer-reviewed. They are grouped by the different sessions that were held in Banff and are in the order of presentation. These papers provide a permanent record of different theoretical perspectives from the last four years. Not all of these ideas will stand the test of time and practice; however, their originality will endure. The practical applications in these proceedings provide nuggets of wisdom to those struggling to apply geostatistics in the best possible way. Students and practitioners will be digging through these papers for many years to come. Oy Leuangthong Clayton V. Deutsch ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We would like to thank the industry sponsors who contributed generously to the overall success and quality of the congress: De Beers Canada Earth Decision Sciences Maptek Chile Ltda. Mira Geoscience Nexen Inc. Petro-Canada Placer Dome Inc.


Dr. Oy Leuangthong & Dr. Clayton V. Deutsch co-direct the Centre for Computational Geostatistics (CCG)

Members of:

SME (Society of Mining Engineers)

SPE (Society of Petroleum Engineers)

IAMG (International Association of Mathematical Geology)

APPEGA (The Association of Professional Engineers, Geologists and Geophysicists of Alberta)

Texte du rabat

The conference proceedings consist of approximately 120 technical papers presented at the Seventh International Geostatistics Congress held in Banff, Alberta, Canada in 2004. All the papers were reviewed by an international panel of leading geostatisticians.

The five major sections are: theory, mining, petroleum, environmental and other applications. The first section showcases new and innovative ideas in the theoretical development of geostatistics as a whole; these ideas will have large impact on (1) the directions of future geostatistical research, and (2) the conventional approaches to heterogeneity modelling in a wide range of natural resource industries. The next four sections are focused on applications and innovations relating to the use of geostatistics in specific industries. Historically, mining, petroleum and environmental industries have embraced the use of geostatistics for uncertainty characterization, so these three industries are identified as major application areas. The last section is open for innovative geostatistical application to address the issues and impact of uncertainty in other industries.


Researchers and practitioners both in industry and academia, working in the fields of geology, petroleum, mining, and environmental science and engineering.


Table OF Contents


Foreword xv

Acknowledgements xvi

List of Participants xvii


Accounting for Geological Boundary for Simulation of Multiple Rock Types

P. Larrondo and C.V. Deutsch 3

Data Integration using the Probability Perturbation Method

J. Caers 13

Spectral Component Geologic Modeling: A New Technology for Integrating Seismic Information at the Correct Scale

T. Yao, C. Calvert, G. Bishop, T. Jones, Y. Ma and L. Foreman 23

Joint Simulations, Optimal Drillhole Spacing and the Role of the Stockpile

A. Boucher, R. Dimitrakopoulos and J. A. Vargas-Guzmán 35

Theory of the Cloud Transform for Applications

O. Kolbjørnsen and P. Abrahamsen 45

P-field Simulation: A Retrospective

R. Froidevaux and R. M. Srivastava 55

Sequential Spatial Simulation Using Latin Hypercube Sampling

P. C. Kyriakidis 65

Field Scale Stochastic Modeling of Fracture Networks: Combining Pattern Statistics with Geomechanical Criteria for Fracture Growth

X. Liu and S. Srinivasan 75

Direct Geostatistical Simulation on Unstructured Grids

J. Manchuk, O. Leuangthong and C. V. Deutsch 85

Directional Metropolis: Hastings Updates for Posteriors with Non-linear Likelihoods

H. Tjelmeland and J. Eidsvik 95

Detection of Local Anomalies in High Resolution Hyperspectural Imagery using Geostatistical Filtering and Local Spatial Statistics

P. Goovaerts 105

Covariance Models with Spectral Additive Components

D. Marcotte and M. Powojowski 115

A Statistical Technique for Modelling Non-stationary Spatial Processes

J. Stephenson, C. Holmes and K. Gallagher 125

Conditioning Geostatistical Simulation Models in the Presence of Highly Non-linear Geologic Structure

M. J. Pyrcz and C. V. Deutsch 135

3D Geological Modelling and Uncertainty: The Potential Field Method

C. Aug, J.-P. Chilés, G. Courrioux and C. Lajaunie 145

Accounting for Non-Stationarity and Interactions in Object Simulation for Reservoir Heterogeneity Characterization

D. Allard, R. Froidevaux and P. Biver 155

Estimating the Trace Length Distribution of Fractures from Line Sampling Data

C. Lantuéjoul, H. Beucher, J.P. Chilés, P. Elion, C. Lajaunie and

H. Wackernagel 165

On Some Controversial Issues of Geostatistical Simulation

L. Y. Hu and M. L. Ravalec-Dupin 175

On the Automatic Inference and Modelling of a Set of Indicator Covariances and Cross-Covariances

E. Pardo-Igúzquiza and P. A. Dowd 185

On Simplifications of Cokriging

J. Rivoirard 195

Efficient Simulation Techniques for Uncertainty Quantification on Continuous Variables: A Process Preserving the Bounds, including Uncertainty on Data, Uncertainty on Average, and Local Uncertainty

P. Biver 205

Higher Order Models using Entropy, Markov Random Fields and Sequential Simulation

C. Daly 215

Beyond Covariance: The Advent of Multiple-Point Geostatistics

A. G. Journel 225

Non-Stationary Multiple-Point Geostatistical Models

S. Strebelle and T. Zhang 235

A Workflow for Multiple-Point Geostatistical Simulation

Y. Liu, A. Harding and R. Gilbert 245

A Multiple-scale, Pattern-based Approach to Sequential Simulation

B. G. Arpat and J. Caers 255

Sequential Conditional Simulation by Identification of Training Patterns

T. Zhang, P. Switzer and A. Journel 265

A Parallel Scheme for Multi-Scale Data Integration

O. I. Tureyen and J. Caers 275

Stochastic Modelling of Natural Fractured Media: A Review

J. P. Chilés 285

Geostatistical Simulation of Fracture Networks

R. M. Srivastava, P. Frykman and M. Jensen 295

The Promises and Pitfalls of Direct Simulation

O. Leuangthong 305

Sample Optimization and Confidence Assessment of Marine Diamond Deposits using Cox Simulations

G. J. Brown, C. Lantuéjoul and C. F. Prins 315

Inverse Conditional Simulation of Relative Permeabilities

Jamie Gomez-Hernandez and Carolina Guardiola-Albert 325

Quantifiable Mineral Resource Classification - A Logical Approach

C. Dohm 333


Geostatistics in Resource/Reserve Estimation: Survey of the Canadian Mining Industry Practice

M. Dagbert 345

Integration of Conventional and Downhole Geophysical Data in Metalliferous Mines

M. Kay, R. Dimitrakopoulos and P. Fullagar 351

The Kriging Oxymoron: Conditionally Unbiased and Accurate Predictor (2nd Edition)

E. Isaaks 363

Post-Processing of SK Estimators and Simulations for Assessment of Recoverable Resources and Reserves for South African Gold Mines

D. G. Krige and W. Assibey-Bonsu 375

The Practice of Sequential Gaussian Simulation

M. Nowak and G. Verly 387

Spatial Characterization of Limestone and Marl Quality in a Quarry for Cement Manufacturing

J. A. Almeida, M. Rocha and A. Teixeira 399

A Non-linear GPR Tomographic Inversion Algorithm Based on Iterated Cokriging and Conditional Simulations

E. Gloaguen, D. Marcotte and M. Chouteau 409

Application of Conditional Simulation to Quantify Uncertainty and to Classify a Diamond Deflation Deposit

S. P. Duggan and R. Dimitrakopoulos 419

Geostatistical Simulation Techniques Applied to Kimberlite Orebodies and Risk Assessment of Sampling Strategies

J. Deraisme and D. Farrow 429

Modelling 3D Grade Distributions on the Tarkwa Paleoplacer Gold Deposit, Ghana, Africa

T. R. Fisher, K. Dagdelen and A. K. Turner 439

Conditional Simulation of Grade in a Multi-Element Massive Sulphide Deposit

N. Schofield 449

The Ultimate Test - Using Production Reality A Gold Case Study

P. Blackney, C. Standing and V. Snowden 457

Ore-Thickness and Nickel Grade Resource Confidence at the Koniambo Nickel Laterite (A Conditional Simulation Voyage of Discovery)

M. P. Murphy, H. M. Parker, A. F. Ross and M. A. Audet 469

Mineral Resource Classification through the Conditional Simulation

T.M. Wawruch and J.F. Betzhold 479

Geostatistical Investigation of Elemental Enrichment in Hydrothermal Mineral Deposits

A. R. Samal, R. H. Fifarek, and R. R. Sengupta 491

Valuing a Mine as a Portfolio of European Call Options: The Effect of Geological Uncertainty and Implications for Strategic Planning

E. Henry, D. Marcotte, and M. Samis 501

Classification of Mining Reserves using Direct Sequential Simulation

A. Soares 511

Using Unfolding to Obtain Improved Estimates in the Murrin Murrin Nickel-cobalt Laterite Deposit in Western Australia

M.P. Murphy, L.M. Bloom, and U. Mueller 523

Measures of Uncertainty for Resource Classification

L. Eduardo de Souza, J.F.C. Leite Costa, and J.Carlos Koppe 529

Incorporating Uncertainty in Coal Seam Depth Determination via Seismic Reflection and Geostatistics

V. Cerqueira Koppe, F. Gambin, J.F.C. Leite Costa, J. Carlos Koppe, G. Fallon, and N. Davies 537

Implementation Aspects of Sequential Simulation

S. Zanon and O. Leuangthong 543


Early Uncertainty Assessment: Application to a Hydrocarbon Reservoir Development

G. Caumon and A. G. Journel 551

Reservoir Facies Modeling: New Advances in MPS

A. Harding, S. Strebelle, M. Levy, J. Thorne, D. Xie, S. Leigh and R. Preece 559

Fitting the Boolean Parameters in a Non-Stationarity Case

H. Beucher, M. B. García-Morales and F. Geffroy 569

Fine Scale Rock Properties: Towards the Spatial Modeling of Regionalized Probability Distribution Functions

M. García, D. Allard, D. Foulon and S. O. Delisle 579

A Combined Geostatistical and Source Model to Predict Superpermeability from Flowmeter Data: Application to the Ghawar Field

J. Voelker and J. Caers 591

Combining Methods for Subsurface Prediction

P. Abrahamsen 601

Processed-based Reservoir Modelling in the Example of Meandering Channel

I. Cojan, O. Fouché, S. Lopéz and J. Rivoirard 611

Multiple Point Geostatistics: Optimal Template Selection and Implementation in Multi-Thread Computational Environments

A. Barrera, X. Liu, J. Ni, and S. Srinivasan 621

Direct Assessment of Uncertainty using Stochastic Flow Simulation

J. Leung and S. Srinivasan 631

Preservation of Multiple Point Structure when Conditioning by Kriging

W. Ren, L. B. Cunha and C. V. Deutsch 643

Stochastic Modeling of the Rhine-Meuse Delta using Mutiple-Point Geostatistics

A. Maharaja 653

The Stochastic Simulation of Undiscovered Petroleum Accumulations

Z. Chen, K. G. Osadetz and H. Gao 661

Prediction of Spatial Patterns of Saturation Time-Lapse from Time-Lapse Seismic

J. Wu, T. Mukerji and A. Journel 671

Statistical Scale-Up: Concepts and Application to Reservoir Flow Simulation Practice

L. Lake, S. Srinivasan and A. John 681

Coupling Sequential Self-Calibration and Genetic Algorithms to Integrate Production Data in Geostatistical Reservoir Modeling

X. H. Wen, T. Yu, and S. Lee 691

High Resolution Geostatistics on Coarse Unstructured Flow Grids

G. Caumon, O. Grosse, and J. L. Mallet 703

Assessment of Uncertainty in Reservoir Production Forecasts Using Approximate Fluid Flow Simulators

O.P. Lodoen and H. More 713

Sensitivity of Oil Production to Petrophysical Heterogeneities

A. Skorstad, O. Kolbjørnsen, B. Fjellvoll, J. Howell, T. Manzocchi, and J. Carter 723

Scaling Relations and Sampling Volume for Seismic Data

P. Frykman, O.V. Vejbæk, and R. Rasmussen 731

Hidden Markov Chains for Identifying Geological Features from Seismic Data

J. Eidsvik, E. Gonzalez, and T. Mukerji 737

Evaluation of Stochastic Earth Model Workflows, Vertical Up-Scaling and Areal Up-Scaling Using Data from the Eunice Monument South Unit (New Mexico) and the LL-652 Central Fault Block (Venezuela) Reservoirs

W.S. Meddaugh 743

Application of Design of Experiments to Expedite Probabilistic Assessment of Reservoir Hydrocarbon Volumes (OOIP)

W. S. Meddaugh, S.D. Griest, and S.J. Gross 751

Stochastic Reservoir Model for the First Eocene Reservoir, Wafra Field, Partitioned Neutral Zone (PNZ)

W.S. Meddaugh, D. Dull, S.D. Griest, P. Montgomery, and G. McNaboe 757

Multiple-Point Statistics to Generate Pore Space Images

H. Okabe and M.J. Blunt 763

Local Updating of Reservoir Properties for Production Data Integration

L. Zhang, L. Cunha, and C.V. Deutsch 769


Comparison of Model Based Geostatistics in Ecology: Application to Fin Whale Spatial Distribution in Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

P. Monestiez, L. Dubroca, E. Bonnin, J. P. Durbec and C. Guinet 777

Simulation-based Assessment of a Geostatistical Approach for Estimation and Mapping of the Risk of Cancer

P. Goovaerts 787

Air Quality Assessment using Stochastic Simulation and Neural Networks

A. Russo, C. Nuñéz, A. M. F. Bio, M. J. Pereira and A. Soares 797

Mapping Land Cover Changes with Landsat Image and Spatio­ Temporal Geostatistics

A. Boucher, K. Seto and A. Journel 809

Spherical Wavelets and their Application to Meteorological Data

H. S. Oh 819

Multivariate Geostatistical Mapping of Atmospheric Deposition in France

O. Jaquet, L. Croisé, E. Ulrich and P. Duplat 833

Geostatistical and Fourier Analysis Applied to Cross-Hole Tomography Seismic Data

J. M. Carvalho and A. T. Cavalheiro 843

The Importance of De-clustering and Uncertainty in Climate Data: A Case Study of West African Sahel Rainfall

A. Chappell and M. Ekström 853

The Geostatistical Earth Modeling Software (GEMS): A Tool for New Algorithms

N. Remy 865

Evaluating Techniques for Multivariate Classification of Non-collocated Spatial Data

S. A. McKenna 873

Travel Time Simulation of Radionuclides in a 200 m Deep Heterogeneous Clay Formation Locally Disturbed by Excavation

M. Huysmans, A. Berckmans and A. Dassargues 883

Geostatistics and Sequential Data Assimilation

H. Wackernagel and L. Bertino 893

Spatial Properties of Seasonal Rainfall in Southeast England

M. Ekström and A. Chappell 899

Geostatistic Indicators of Waterway Quality for Nutrients

C. Bernard-Michel and C. De Fouquet 907

Application of Geostatistical Simulation to Enhance Satellite Image Products

C. Hlavka and J. Dungan 913

Geostatistical Noise Filtering of Geophysical Images: Application to Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) Sites.

H. Saito, T. C. Coburn, and S. A. McKenna 921


Modeling Skewness in Spatial Data Analyis without Data Transformation

P. Naveau and D. Allard 929

Gradual Deformation of a Boolean Model

M. L. Ravalec-Dupin and L. Y. Hu 939

When can Shape and Scale Parameters of a 3D Variogram be Estimated?

P. Dahle, O. Kolbjørnsen and P. Abrahamsen 949

Comparison of Stochastic Simulation Algorithms in Mapping Spaces of Uncertainty of Non-linear Transfer Functions

S. E. Qureshi and R. Dimitrakopoulos 959

Integrating Multiple-Point Statistics into Sequential Simulation Algorithms

J. M. Ortiz and X. Emery 969

Post-processing of Multiple-point Geostatistical Models to Improve Reproduction of Training Patterns

S. Strebelle and N. Remy 979

Improving the Efficiency of the Sequential Simulation Algorithm using Latin Hypercube Sampling

G. G. Pilger, J. F. C. Leite Costa and J. C. Koppe 989

Exact Conditioning to Linear Constraints in Kriging and Simulation

J. Gómez-Hernández, R. Froidevaux and P. Biver 999

A Dimension-reduction Approach for Spectral Tempering Using Empirical Orthogonal Functions

A. Pintore and C. C. Holmes 1007

A New Model for Incorporating Spatial Association and Singularity in Interpolation of Exploratory Data

Q. Cheng 1017

Lognormal Kriging: Bias Adjustment and Kriging Variances

N. Cressie and M. Pavlikova 1027

Evaluating Information Redundancy Through the Tau Model

S. Krishnan, A. Boucher and A. Journel 1037

An Information Content Measure Using Multiple-point Statistics

Y. Liu 1047

Internal Consistency and Inference of Change-of-Support Isofactorial Models

X. Emery and J. Ortiz 1057

History Matching Under Geological Control: Application to North Sea Reservoir

B. T. Hoffman and J. Caers 1067

A Direct Sequential Simulation Approach to Streamline-Based History Matching

J. Caers, H. Gross and A. R. Kovscek 1077

Mapping Annual Nitrogen Dioxide Concentrations in Urban Areas

D. Gallois, C. de Fouquet, G. L. Loc'h, L. Malherbe and G. Cárdenas 1087

A Step by Step Guide to Bi-Gaussian Disjunctive Kriging

J. Ortiz, B. Oz, and C.V. Deutsch 1097

Assessing the Power of Zones of Abrupt Change Detection Test

E. Gabriel and D. Allard 1103

Experimental Study of Multiple-support, Multiple-point Dependence and its Modeling

S. Krishnan 1109

Validation of First-order Stochastic Theories on Reactive Solute Transport in Highly Stratified Aquifers

D. Fernàndez-Garcia and J.J. Gómez-Hernández 1117

Geostatistical and Fourier Analysis Approaches in Mapping an Archeological Site

A.T. Cavalheiro and J.M. Carvalho 1123

BATGAM Geostatistical Software Based on GSLIB

B. Buxton, A. Pate, and M. Morara 1130

INDEX 1137

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Geostatistics Banff 2004
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