Plant Pathogen Resistance Biotechnology

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Plant pathogens and diseases are among the most significant challenges to survival that plants face. Disease outbreaks caused by microbial or viral pathogens can decimate crop yields and have severe effects on global food supply. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying plant immune response and applying this understanding to develop biotechnological tools to enhance plant defense against pathogens has great potential for moderating the impact of plant disease outbreaks. Plant Pathogen Resistance Biotechnology's main focus is an in depth survey of the biological strategies being used to create transgenic disease resistant plants for sustainable plant resistance Plant Pathogen Resistance Biotechnology is divided into four sections. The first section covers biological mechanisms underpinning disease resistance in plants, while the second highlights case studies of important pathogen-crop groups and then considers why the application of important pathogen-crop groups, transgenic-based strategies designed to selectively target pathogens could benefit crop production. The third section provides information on the status of transgenic crops around the world, and finally the last part explores high-tech alternatives to genetic engineering for developing disease resistant traits in plants.Edited and authored by leaders in the field, Plant Pathogen Resistance Biotechnology will be an invaluable resource to those studying or researching plant biotechnology, plant pathology, plant biology, plant and crop genetics, in addition to crop science.

David B. Collinge is a Professor of Plant Pathology in the Department of Plant Biology and Plant Biotechnology in the Faculty of Life Science at the University of Copenhagen.


List of Contributors xiii

Foreword xix

Acknowledgments xxv

Chapter 1 The Status and Prospects for Biotechnological Approaches for Attaining Sustainable Disease Resistance 1
David B. Collinge, Ewen Mullins, Birgit Jensen and Hans J.L. Jørgensen

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Factors to consider when generating diseaseresistant crops 2

1.3 Opportunities to engineer novel cultivars for disease resistance 10

1.4 Technical barriers to engineering novel cultivars for disease resistance 13

1.5 Approaches for identification and selection of genes important for disease resistance 14

1.6 Promising strategies for engineering diseaseresistant crops 15

1.7 Future directions and issues 15

References 16

Part I: Biological Strategies Leading Towards Disease Resistance 21

Chapter 2 Engineering Barriers to Infection by Undermining Pathogen Effector Function or by Gaining Effector Recognition 23
Ali Abdurehim Ahmed, Hazel McLellan, Geziel Barbosa Aguilar, Ingo Hein, Hans ThordalChristensen and Paul R.J. Birch

2.1 Introduction 23

2.2 Plant defence and effector function 24

2.3 Strategies for engineering resistance 33

2.4 Perspective 42

References 43

Chapter 3 Application of Antimicrobial Proteins and Peptides in Developing DiseaseResistant Plants 51
Ashis Kumar Nandi

3.1 Introduction 51

3.2 Biological role of PRproteins 52

3.3 Antimicrobial peptides 56

3.4 Regulation of PRprotein expression 57

3.5 Biotechnological application of PRprotein genes in developing improved crop plants 60

3.6 Future directions 61

Acknowledgement 63

References 63

Chapter 4 Metabolic Engineering of Chemical Defence Pathways in Plant Disease Control 71
Fred Rook

4.1 Introduction 71

4.2 Present status of metabolic engineering in the control of plant disease 73

4.3 Metabolic engineering: technical challenges and opportunities 78

4.4 The outlook for metabolically engineering of disease resistance in crops 83

References 85

Chapter 5 Arabinan: Biosynthesis and a Role in HostPathogen Interactions 91
Maria Stranne and Yumiko Sakuragi

5.1 Introduction 91

5.2 Biosynthesis and modification of arabinan 94

5.3 Distribution of arabinan in different tissues and during development 96

5.4 Role of arabinan in plant growth and development 98

5.5 Roles of arabinan degrading enzymes in virulence of phytopathogenic fungi 99

5.6 Roles of arabinan in pathogen interactions 101

5.7 Conclusion 103

References 103

Chapter 6 Transcription Factors that Regulate Defence Responses and Their Use in Increasing Disease Resistance 109
Prateek Tripathi, Aravind Galla, Roel C. Rabara and Paul J. Rushton

6.1 Introduction 109

6.2 Transcription factors and plant defence 110

6.3 AP2/ERF transcription factors 111

6.4 bZIP transcription factors 113

6.5 WRKY transcription factors 114

6.6 MYB transcription factors 116

6.7 Other transcription factor families 117

6.8 Can the manipulation of specific transcription factors deliver sustainable disease resistance? 118

6.9 Have we chosen the right transgenes? 119

6.10 Have we chosen the right expression strategies? 120

6.11 What new ideas are there for the future of TFbased crop improvement? 121

References 124

Chapter 7 Regulation of Abiotic and Biotic Stress Responses by Plant Hormones 131
Dominik K. Großkinsky, Eric van der Graaff and Thomas Roitsch

7.1 Introduction 131

7.2 Regulation of biotic stress responses by plant hormones 132

7.3 Regulation of abiotic stress responses by plant hormones 140

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Plant Pathogen Resistance Biotechnology
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