Nano- and Biomaterials

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A comprehensive introduction to nano- and biomaterials shining light on the different research disciplines from various perspectives. The straightforward and well-structured concept is designed to cater for entrants as well as experienced researchers in the field of nanotechnology. The initial chapters introduce nanomaterials, their classification and synthesis techniques, while subsequent chapters discuss the various characterization tools as well as mechanical properties and their applications in biotechnological and biomedical fields. Further understanding of the topic is supported by case studies used for practical purposes. The book concludes with a look at future technology advances. With its explanation of a wide variety of materials, this is an essential reference for chemists, physicists, materials scientists and biomedical engineers.

Zhypargul Abdullaeva is Assistant Professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Kumamoto University in Japan. She has graduated with a PhD degree from Kumamoto University. She worked on the syntheses of carbon nanomaterials and their characterizations. She has obtained a high standard of teaching skills as she taught at various universities and at a variety of levels. Also she has contributed to improve teaching methods.
Professor Abdullaeva has authored a number of scientific publications and has received the gold, silver and bronze Diploma Awards in the Chemistry Olympiads. She is also a member of the Japanese Ceramics Society, European Society of Biomaterials, and the Materials Research Society.


Preface xi

1 Introduction into Nano- and Biomaterials 1

1.1 Definition of Nano- and Biomaterials 1

1.2 History of Nano- and Biomaterials Application 1

1.3 Methods for Preparing of Nanomaterials 2

1.3.1 Mechanical Dispersion Methods for Nanomaterial Synthesis 2

1.3.2 Intensive Plastic Deformation Methods for Nanomaterial Synthesis 5

1.3.3 Obtaining of Nanomaterials by Mechanical Interaction of Various Mediums 8

1.3.4 Physical Dispersion Methods for Nanomaterials Preparation 9

1.3.5 Preparation of Nanomaterials by EvaporationCondensation Method 10

1.3.6 Obtaining of Nanomaterials by Vacuum-Sublimation Technology 13

1.3.7 Obtaining of Nanomaterials by Using Solid Phase Transformations 14

1.3.8 Chemical Dispersion Methods for Nanomaterial Preparation 14

1.3.9 Obtaining of Nanomaterials by Using Chemical Reactions 15

1.3.10 Preparation of Nanomaterials by Electrochemical Methods 20

1.3.11 Preparation of Nanomaterials by Combinations of Physical and Chemical Transformations 21

1.4 Main Achievements in Nanotechnology 22

Case Study 1: Synthesis of Nanoparticles and Environmental Safety Considerations 22

Case Study 2: Property Control of Nanomaterials by Setting Experimental Conditions during Synthesis 23

Control Questions: 23

References 24

Further Reading 25

2 Classification of Nanomaterials 27

2.1 Dispersive Systems andTheir Classifications 27

2.1.1 Classification of Dispersive Systems According to their Aggregation States 27

2.1.2 Classification of Dispersive Systems According to Size 28

2.1.3 Classification of Dispersive Systems According to Dimension 31

2.2 Fullerenes 32

2.2.1 History of Fullerenes 34

2.2.2 Tetrahedral Fullerenes 34

2.2.3 Icosahedral Fullerenes 42

2.2.4 Physical Properties of Fullerenes 47

2.3 Carbon Nanotubes 49

2.3.1 Types and Classification of Carbon Nanotubes 49

2.3.2 Mechanical Properties and Physical Parameters of Carbon Nanotubes 52

Case Study 1: Comparison of Structural Characteristics between Carbon Nanotubes and Fullerenes 54

Control Questions 54

References 55

Further Reading 56

Online Sources 56

3 Nanocomposite Materials and Their Physical Property Features 57

3.1 Nanocomposite Materials 57

3.2 Size Dependence as Nanomaterial Property 57

3.3 Thermodynamical Features of Nanomaterials 58

3.4 Phase Equilibrium Changes in Nano-sized Systems 60

3.5 Melting Temperature Changes in Nanomaterials 61

3.5.1 Polymorphic Characteristic Changes in Nanosystems 61

3.6 Structure of Nano-sized Materials 62

3.7 Crystal Lattice Defects in Nanomaterials 65

3.8 Microdistorsions of Crystal Lattice in Nanomaterials 66

3.9 Consolidation of Nano-sized Powders 68

Case Study 1: Applications of Composite Nanomaterials Due toTheir Improved Mechanical Properties 74

Control Questions 75

References 76

Further Reading 76

Online Source 77

4 Mechanical Characteristics of Dispersive Systems 79

4.1 Dispersion Characteristics of Nanomaterials 79

4.1.1 Specific Surface Area 79

4.1.2 Size Distribution in Nanomaterials 80

4.1.3 Surface, Boundaries, and Morphology of Nanomaterials 89

4.1.4 Grain Boundaries in Nanomaterials 91

4.1.5 Morphology of Nanodisperse Particles 92

4.2 Electrical Properties of Nanomaterials 95

4.2.1 Change in Length of Electron Free Path in Nanomaterials 95

4.3 Electrical Conductivity in Nanomaterials 97

4.4 ElectronWork Function in Nanomediums 99

4.5 Superconductivity Phenomenon in Nanomaterials 101

Case Study 1: Surfactant Effects on Dispersion Characteristics of Copper-Based Nanomaterials 105

Case Study 2: Applications of Superconducting Nanomaterials 105

Control Questions 106

References 10...

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Nano- and Biomaterials
Compounds, Properties, Characterization, and Applications
eBook (pdf)
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